Santolina is an herb said to be used in folk medicine to make a tea that expelled intestinal worms or was used as an eye wash. The plant repels insects, and placing leaves in sachets is said to repel moths.
We grow santolina (also known as lavender cotton) in our rock garden for its evergreen appearance, yellow button-like flowers and drought tolerance. It’s not native to North America, but does very well in our dry Southwest soil.
Gray santolina (Santolina chamaecyparissus) produces bright yellow flowers in summer. The plant has few matches for attractive gray-green foliage and its ability to spread as a groundcover. Our large one has been a cover for a litter of cottontails and is now spreading slowly over a rock wall.
Another variety, green santolina (S. virens or S. rosmarinifolia) has lemon-colored button flowers that contrast with its deeper green foliage. Both types of santolina have an aroma, and some people find the bloom aroma offensive. Most varieties of the shrubby groundcover grow in zones 5 through 9 and need only moderate water. Learn more about santolina varieties from Cornell University.
Caring for Santolina Plants
The plants prefer full sun, but our largest santolina blooms each summer even though it now gets lots of afternoon shade from a nearby tree. Place the plant in well-draining soil. When temperatures reach 90 degrees, water your santolina every few weeks if you get no rain. Otherwise, it needs water only monthly or less.
Prune (really, shear) santolina shrubs in early spring to shape and remove dead flower stems. Every two to three years, give the plant a harder prune down to about 6 inches above the ground to keep the plant from getting leggy. You also can sheer dying flower stalks after the first bloom for the chance of a second summer flowering.
The plant is evergreen or semi-evergreen in some climates. Santolina does best with no fertilizing. How easy is that? And you can take cuttings or divide larger portions of the plant in fall, although the transplants might succumb to cold, so if you can warm them the first winter, even better.
Whether you grow santolina for its herbal properties or appearance, you can grow that!
Xeric plants are smart, easy-care choices simply because they need little watering once established. Still, I’m sure some people avoid trying new plants, or opt for mostly gravel, to lessen time needed caring for ornamental plants.
I’ve got five great options for Southwest gardeners, each hardy in our zone 6B garden and during summer heat. Although all are not technically xeric, they can thrive with little to no watering other than rain. Mostly, these plants need very little care, so try something new this year!
Yarrow (Achillea sp). Yarrow is an herb, and a close relative of chamomile. Yarrow is said to aid digestion or heal wounds when applied as a pulp. Take a look at the scientific name (ever heard of Achilles and his heel?) and you can see how many years people have used yarrow for medicinal purposes. Achilles is said to have applied yarrow tinctures to heal and prevent wounds.
I grow yarrow because it’s pretty, attracts pollinators, and is one of the easiest perennials to maintain. Technically, yarrow needs a little more water than other low-water plants when summer temperatures hover at 90 degrees and higher, but our plants have made it through many seasons with one spring watering and natural rain after that. They’re hardy in zones 5 through 8. You can cut the spent blooms off to encourage more flowering. But for easy care, leave them on the plant, especially in cooler regions. or cut them back all at once for a second bloom in warmer climates. When trimming, you’ll probably see some tiny flowers close to the leaves that should shoot up and open. We’ve transplanted several yarrow plants with no trouble.
In windy areas, ornamental grasses stun in the garden. We often place them as single plants in a grouping of others, but I love the look of a row or grouping of the same grass in the landscape. Even those that aren’t native tend to need less water than some plants, since they don’t truly flower, but can produce lovely stalks topped with seeds. And you can mix textures, colors and heights for landscape interest. There are so many choices!
Even those grasses that aren’t native need little care and use little water. A few (like Silky threadgrass) can spread, but you only need to pull or dig up the tiny starts in early spring to control where they grow. We like to add one annual such as Purple Fountain Grass (Pennisetum secateum ‘Rubrum’) each year for color pop, but our other grasses make it through winter.
Just check to see average zones. For example, the Purple Fountain Grass can overwinter in zones 8 through 11. And ask whether your favorite is a warm-season or cool-season grass; that helps you know when to plant it and whether it will survive winter or need a little shade in the heat of summer. All you have to do is shear back the foliage each spring as the grass begins to green at the base. So, so easy.
Prairie or desert zinnia (Zinnia grandiflora), is an easy and attractive groundcover with sunny yellow flowers that grows in zones 4 through 9. The plant is native to New Mexico, Arizona and parts of southern Colorado, so it’s hardy in Southwestern soils and survives drought. Ours were already in our garden, and I have heard that the plant can be a little challenging to get started. My guess is excited gardeners plant the zinnias too soon, before soils have warmed. Ours cascade down a rock wall, coming up each year in little soil, but plenty of warmth from the rocks. The rocky soil also drains well, which likely helps keep the plants healthy and spreading at just the right rate (not invasive). The foliage browns in winter, but is so small it doesn’t look messy. All I do each year is put on my gloves and gently pull away the dead foliage when I see it greening up at the bottom. Once you do that, the plants get the sun they need and begin growing and flowering.
Gopher spurges (Euphorbia rigida) are among few plants that handle extreme cold (down to -20 degrees) and the high heat of zone 11. The plant is called gopher spurge because it has been said to repeal gophers, but I’m not sure there is any proof of that, or anything at all that truly repels the underground destroyers. I can say that ours have survived, save some deer chomping. The stalks that were eaten succumbed to cold, but I just cut them off at the base of the plant.
Otherwise, our gopher spurge has grown nearly a foot in one year and was among the earliest flowering plants in our spring garden. We also have a Euphorbia ‘Ascot Rainbow’ we bought locally last year, and the foliage alone is beautiful. This newer plant also has survived winter and is beginning to bud out. All you have to do is cut off stems after the seeds ripen; new stalks will come up and you can enjoy the silver-green or colorful rainbow foliage all year. Gopher spurge and many other Euphorbias are succulents, so they’re lovers of sun, heat and low water.
It’s the year of the Coreopsis! And I’m so glad. The native flowering plant is so versatile. It looks beautiful in rock gardens or more formal landscapes. Just place coreopsis in well-draining soil and most perennial varieties should be hardy from zones 4 through 9. Sometimes called tickseed, coreopsis comes in several varieties and deer seem to ignore the plants. Because the native plants tend to come up along ditch banks or other disturbed areas they tend to easily grow in any Southwest garden conditions. The bright yellow blooms of Lanceleaf and Grandiflora coreopsis are common, and breeders have grown new varieties of Coreopsis with color variations.
Deadheading flowers as they dry up will keep them blooming, but if you find deadheading takes too much time, wait until a good flush of blooms has begun to die back and shear the flower stalks off all at once; you should get more blooms.
My husband’s got worms and I couldn’t be more thrilled. Because his worms eat food scraps and produce a nectar-like waste product – worm castings.
With vermicomposting, he’s producing a soil amendment (humus) full of more than 60 micronutrients and trace minerals to gently and naturally support plant growth. Worm castings are the excrement left by worms, and the worm tower he uses for vermicomposting makes it easy to feed the worms and harvest their castings.
Benefits of Worm Castings
Castings hold all sorts of live micronutrients that help plants better absorb nutrients from soil, especially soil with low or high pH.
The worm castings can help repel some pests such as white flies and aphids; an enzyme in the castings is offensive to pests.
Feeding worms food scraps reduces and recycles garbage throughout the year.
Worm castings do not stink!
How a Worm Bin Works
Tim purchased a Worm Factory from Nature’s Footprint a few years ago. He keeps it in a corner of the garage for easy access and protection. Vermicomposting works with upward migration. The worms move up to eat, and gravity sends moisture and castings to the bottom. Adding food at the top every so often (when worms are actively eating the last food you added and are moving to the top tray) keeps the worms continuously fed and reproducing. The worms eat paper, fruit and vegetable scraps, bread, coffee grounds and eggshells, along with other scraps. The bedding added to each level eventually breaks down into castings as well.
The resulting compost is thick, dark and crumbly. Its ready to use as soon as you harvest. Some of the best uses are to mix the castings in with garden soil as an amendment or to top dress container plants. We added castings to some of our vegetable starts last year a few weeks after planting, just loosely scratching the castings into the soil around the plants. It takes less worm compost to improve soil than regular compost. Finally, use worm castings to make compost tea.
A Few Tips
Keep the tower warm in winter. You might have to either move a worm bin or give it some heat. There are insulators made for bins. Tim hangs a lamp over the bin and sets a timer so the lamp warms the bin at night. Even if production slows, the worms are warm enough, and the food does not freeze.
You’ll have more success if you break the food scraps into manageable sizes, about the size you get when running a peeler over a carrot.
Be sure to check instructions for worm type. Red wigglers (Elsenia festida) eat and reproduce better than most, but you can use European nightcrawlers (E. Hortensis), which work well in our tower.
Store your worm castings in an airtight container and they’ll continue to break down. Just let the castings dry a little before sealing. They can be damp but not wet.
The leachate, or liquid that runs down, can be toxic. Don‘t use it if it smells bad or on edibles. Be sure to dilute it with a ratio of about 10 parts water to one part leachate.
If you’re looking for a way to get kids involved in gardening, worms are it! What fun kids can have helping care for the worms and seeing how they help a family grow food or pretty flowers for mom. It’s also a great way to teach responsibility if kids are charged with prepping scraps or bedding and feeding worms.
If you can’t spend the money on a worm bin or tower, you can find information on making your own or vermicomposting directly into a garden bed.
Last fall, I listed and defined 10 gardening terms that you’ll see often in books and blogs about gardening. I’ve got 10 more to cover just before gardeners start buying new seeds and plants and planning their 2018 gardens.
A zone is the climate-related gardening region in which you live. The most common designation that likely appears on your plant tags or care information is the USDA hardiness zone. It’s based mainly on how cold your lowest lows fall in winter. A zone in the Southwest can match one on the East coast, but other conditions such as temperature extremes in the day, soil makeup, wind or humidity also can affect how well a plant grows. New Mexico has 10 variations of the USDA zones, from the mountains’ 4b (slightly warmer than 4a) to 9a along the southern Rio Grande valley. Learn more about USDA and Sunset zones here.
Plants for sale or that you’ve placed in a container can become root-bound. This means the roots couldn’t spread outward as the plant grew, so they began circling the container borders and might be poking out of drainage holes on the bottom. Most plants grow poorly and can even die when this happens, but see this article about house plants that like crowded root conditions. If a root-bound plant for sale looks otherwise healthy, you can take a chance on it. Break up the roots with your fingers and spread the roots out when you plant in the ground or in a larger container. Be sure to check for signs of circling roots on indoor and outdoor container plants.
When we sell tomatoes at market, we get plenty of requests for heirloom varieties. These grow from older, more pure seed lines handed down for generations. They’re often some of the tastiest and most nutritious vegetables you can find. Ambitious gardeners prefer heirlooms so they can save their own seeds for planting the next year. However, they might not resist disease as well as a tomato variety bred to do so, and heirloom varieties like Brandywine don’t do well in shorter growing seasons like ours. Still, every gardener should try an heirloom flower or vegetable at some point to enjoy the benefits of the carefully selected qualities bred into the plants.
When breeders create hybrids of any plant, they control the results by selecting favored qualities of both plants and cross-pollinate them to produce a new plant with the best of each. The careful controlling of the process by breeders can take years of care. Hybrids give us vegetables resistant to diseases, with richer colors or flavors or that produce in shorter growing seasons. Hybrids are not the same as GMOs; genetically modified plants are developed by altering DNA in a lab.
This is the part of any plant where the roots and stem join. See this demonstration for placing the crown at the right depth from Fox Hill Gardens. This is important because the crown should be just about soil level when planting most plants. Be sure to check instructions that come with individual plants, especially roses and trees, about depth of planting and whether to mulch to help protect the crown.
5. Seed start
A seed start is the small plant, or seedling, you grow from a seed. New gardeners can be confused about whether they can plant a seed directly in the ground (direct sow, below) or whether the plant will do better started indoors under grow lights and then transplanted into the garden at the appropriate time. You can save money starting seeds, and basil and zinnias are two easy annual plants to start from seed. Others, such as cucumbers, don’t transplant well. This article from Gardener’s Supply Company has great advice on starting seeds, which can help save money on new plants each spring.
4. Direct sow
This means to place seeds directly into the ground in the garden or in a container. Carrots, lettuce and green beans are easy vegetables to grow from direct sowing. Just follow the directions on the packet about seeding time, planting depth and spacing. You might have to thin your seedlings later. One positive: if you plant too soon or too deeply, seeds cost so little you can often try again!
The tomato terms determinate and indeterminate have caused me plenty of confusion in years past. I don’t know why I have such a hard time remembering them. Determinate varieties grow to a set mature size and produce most of the fruit within a few weeks. Then it’s done. Determinates also are called bush varieties.
These tomatoes continue growing until hit by frost, and sometimes are called vining tomatoes. They produce fruit steadily through the growing season, depending on weather conditions, etc. They can grow out of control if not staked. I’m planning to remember the difference by noting that indeterminate implies the plant does what it wants. But I wish someone would invent a better set of words!
Basically, a plant’s habit refers to the direction it grows, such as upright, mounded or prostrate (spreading low along the ground). It also refers to terms such as shrub vs tree. A shrub, for example, grows to only about 15 feet high and has multiple stems in the ground, whereas a tree usually has a single trunk and greater height. This handout from the University of Colorado shows growth habit shapes and definitions.
As fall temperatures drop, there’s still plenty to do in the Southwest garden. In most areas of New Mexico, freeze hits by mid- to late October. But plenty of sunny days hit in fall here so gardeners can get outside and take care of these chores before winter arrives:
If you still have any vegetables ripening, better harvest them now. Tomatoes and winter squashes can finish ripening inside. If you haven’t harvested and dried herbs, now is the time to trim them back and get them ready for use in the kitchen. Some vegetables, such as kale and carrots, can stay in the ground a while. You can preserve some vegetables with help from extension office publications or other credible sources that address flavor and safety of canned or frozen foods. Finally, I like to pick flowers still blooming and place them in a vase inside, just to make me feel better about the season ending.
There is some debate about what to leave in the garden and what to throw out. You definitely want to throw out any weeds or diseased plant cuttings. Compost healthy cuttings. We even laid some carrots that were too big for our taste out on tree stumps for deer and other critters to eat. It’s personal preference to leave some debris on the ground to naturally compost in place. But if the debris hides unwanted bugs or spores, it’s not a good idea. I usually clean up most plant debris and then use straw or leaves for composting.
3. Preserve Bulbs and Seeds
Check a local gardening book or online to find out how to dig up and overwinter bulbs that can’t handle cold temperatures in your area. In zone 6B in New Mexico, we leave iris, daylily and allium bulbs or corms and should dig up gladiolas and dahlias. Usually, the bulbs just need to be kept cool and dry. You also can preserve seeds from flowers and herbs such as dill or cilantro for cooking or replanting.
4. Leave Some Seeds
Not all flowering plants need fall trimming of spent seed heads. Many can make it through winter and wait for summer trims. And birds love dried up seeds on sunflowers, cosmos and other flowering annuals. Plus, by leaving the seeds on, you increase the chance that some native grasses or flowers will reseed.
5. Evaluate Plant Placement
As you clean up and assess how plants look at the end of their growing season, you can evaluate plant placement. For example, some of our green beans did not fare as well as last year. I believe the spot I planted them in this year got more late summer shade from a neighbor’s tree than I anticipated based on early summer sun. Some plants might have grown too large for their spot or get too much water from runoff. Take some notes and consult local sources so you still have time to decide whether you can move them this fall. Or plan where they’ll go in spring, especially before buying new plants!
In New Mexico, we mulch for two reasons: to conserve water and cool roots in summer and to warm roots during cold winter. I typically mulch as part of fall cleanup and near the time of the first freeze. Most plants that are native and appropriate for your garden can get by without mulch, but it helps protect tender plants from hard freezes in winter. Mulching needs to be a few inches thick to insulate and to cut down on weeds.
7. Protect Plants
Some of my gladiola bulbs came back and rebloomed without being dug up. But I mulched them pretty heavily with leaves. In addition to mulching, you can put buckets around plants to help keep them warm, especially in winter wind, or to keep deer from destroying them (adding a “lid” made of chicken wire or similar material that lets in sun and moisture but not curious critters). Plants in containers that are tender or annual in your area need to come inside, We move outside containers against a south-facing wall for warmth and to protect against wind.
8. Empty Containers
It’s time to empty all those containers with edibles and annuals that are dying back. You’ll need fresh potting soil next year and it’s better to store containers empty. We empty soil from our containers (unless the plant had a disease) into garden beds and large stock tank containers that need soil. You can also save potting mix in plastic sealed containers, but it should be mixed with fresh potting soil and compost when replanted in the spring.
9. Amend Soil
If you have new garden beds or some that need better soil, fall is a good time to improve soil health. Adding some compost gives it a chance to break down, as does covering beds with leaves that fall from trees. And it makes the spring preparation easier. There are many ways to amend bad soil, such as planting cover crops before frost or having a soil test so you know how to better balance pH in your growing beds. But gardeners learn to tell when soil is compacted. It’s hard to go wrong adding a little organic matter in fall.
10. Enjoy Time Outside!
Fall is a favorite season for a reason. Cool nights and warm days make it hard to stay inside, even when there are few chores to do. And enjoying even the final flower blooms before frost arrives is part of the reason you work hard to make your lawn and garden look nice.
Soak it all in and dream about spring, when you will feel renewed energy and enthusiasm for garden chores.
It’s warming up outside (finally!) and lots of Southwest homeowners will be planning changes or additions to their xeric and edible gardens.
1. Small tomatoes – cocktail, cherry, grape Pros: Tomatoes are by far the best crop to grow at home to enjoy the flavor and quality of the fruit. Small tomatoes ripen in most climates, and if you plant in succession (such as one plant every two weeks), you can enjoy them all summer in moderate climates. Colorful cherry tomato varieties look terrific roasted or in salads. And these smaller tomato varieties can grow right on your patio in a container (minimum about 12 inches). Cons: Heirloom tomatoes are pretty and often large, plus great for slicing to add to sandwiches and green chile cheeseburgers. But unless you live in a warmer zone (Las Cruces, Deming and lower elevations of Arizona), or have a greenhouse, it can be tough to grow large heirloom tomatoes. At zone 6B, we have a relatively short growing period.
Care: Tomatoes need sun and heat; larger fruit seldom ripens completely if temperatures drop or clouds roll in at the end of the summer. It’s possible to keep tomato plants going, and we probably could have grown larger varieties last year. Look for short-season varieties. Water tomatoes consistently for best results, using a timed drip system when possible and a routine for hand watering containers.
2. Cucumbers Pros: When you grow your own cucumbers, they’re fresher, tastier and lack the wax coating applied to commercial cucumbers. They’re easy to grow and typically produce for months each summer. You can find burpless, slicing and pickling varieties. Cucumber flowers are bright and pretty, so the plant can look great mixed in with ornamentals. Cons: A cucumber plant needs lots of space, and should have a trellis or similar structure for climbing. You can grow one in a container, as long as you have something for the plant to climb on or around or choose a bush variety (they take 2 to 3 feet of space vs. 6 feet for vine plants).
Care: Plant cucumber seeds directly in the ground based on seed packet instructions for your zone. Cucumbers don’t transplant well and don’t germinate well until the ground and air are warm enough. Learn when to harvest for best flavor and smaller seeds, usually before the fruit gets larger than its stated size. Give them full sun and well-drained soil.
3. Green beans Pros: Green beans come in bush or pole (climbing) varieties, along with filet shape, are super easy to grow and are pretty plants. Snap beans (with an edible pod), shelling beans, and dry beans are all choices for home gardeners. You can find purple beans and other colors to liven up the kitchen garden and your dinner plate. Green beans grow well in a range of zones. Cons: Beans can produce! Although you can freeze or can extras, you can become overwhelmed by the harvest. Plant beans several weeks apart to extend the season and grow only what you need. And be sure to provide stakes, tee pees or fencing for pole beans.
Care: Sow seeds directly in the ground in full sun when possible and after the soil warms. Beans need well-drained soil and regular moisture. There is no need to soak bean seeds before planting; the plants germinate quickly and soaking can damage bean seeds. Beans do best when temperatures are not too high (above 90 degrees F) or too cool.
4. Snap peas Pros: Snap peas are my new favorite vegetable to eat right off the vine. Sugar snaps are delicious raw and a great addition to salads, vegetable trays or stir fry. You can start pea plants earlier than green beans, as soon as soil temperatures warm to about 45 degrees F. The peas grow best in cool weather, which makes them perfect for early spring and late summer planting. The flowers are pretty and delicate, and the leaves are more attractive than larger green bean foliage. Cons: Sugar snaps have annoying strings along the entire pod, but you can find stringless varieties. The plants need more water than some vegetables.
Care: If using a drip system for your kitchen garden, add a few extra emitters or more pressure for your peas. Vining varieties do best if supported by a trellis or other structure. Mulching around the base of the plants helps keep them cool and moist.
5. Carrots Pros: Every child (and adult) should get to pull and taste a fresh carrot to get hooked on vegetables. Carrots do well in cool weather, and are one of the first crops you can plant in spring (about 3 weeks before your last frost). Often, you can keep them going well into fall or winter with the help of a row cover fabric or similar method to warm the ground slightly. Carrots come in a rainbow of colors or several sizes and shapes of typical orange roots. Cons: Carrots require thinning to grow best, and it’s hard to pull up any of your many seedlings. But thinning helps – this is a root crop and you want the root to have plenty of room beneath the soil. If your soil is too compacted, the carrots won’t grow well.
Care: Keep seeds evenly moist and be sure to thin when leaves reach a couple of inches high. Until ready to harvest, keep the crowns covered with soil. Harvest carrots when the top of the root, or crown, is under an inch in diameter, depending on the variety.
Need to ease into saving water in the lawn? Or just ease into gardening? As you think about next spring and ideas for improving both the look and sustainability of your lawn or garden, consider adding easy-care plants that need little to no watering. Here are five ideas:
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). The woody, herbal rosemary is near the top of my list of favorite xeric plants. The only problem you can have with rosemary is if it receives too much water (or snowpack in winter). Otherwise, try a creeping rosemary near a rock or low garden wall. The stems will grow over the surface and you can trim it in spring just to keep it clean and healthy. I’ve seen bushier varieties shaped into small hedges. And man, what a great-smelling hedge! Finally, be sure to plant a rosemary near your kitchen so you can head out and clip cuttings for cooking use anytime of year (at least in zones 8 through 10). We have rosemary plants that come back each year here in zone 6B. They’re near the house in a rock garden, which helps warm them up. Plant rosemary in full sun and only water occasionally after its first season in the garden. Rosemary plants also reward you with tiny lavender-colored flowers in summer. And although I love the taste of rosemary, deer leave them alone. Bonus!
Barberry (Berberis). Barberry comes in several varieties that do well in plenty of sun (or partial shade) and low water. Berberis x ‘Tara’ Emerald Carousel is a type that grows well in alkaline soils, the kind we have here in New Mexico. Depending on the variety, barberry grows a little wider than high. Some Japanese barberries can grow tall – up to 10 feet – so consider that when selecting a plant. Barberry leaves change color with the season, and I’ve seen lime, orange and deep red varieties; they’re all stunning. Several plants along a wall can form a hedge in front of a house or fence. We like the spiky red foliage for its color and texture in our garden and deer usually avoid the plants. Barberries might need a little more water in the first year or so than some plants listed here. After that, they can handle periods of near drought or drought. All you have to do is prune them once or twice a year to keep the shape or size you like. Be sure to wear gloves!
Yarrow (Achillea). Yarrow is considered an herb, but I grow it for its easy care and stunning colors, which include white, yellow and red varieties. Moonshine yarrow has bright yellow flower clusters that you can cut for arrangements. I also pressed a few this year. This truly is one of the easiest plants to grow. Each spring, you simply cut off the dead flower stalks and clean up the plant. By mid-summer, you’ll have color. I even tried trimming spent flowers off one of our yarrow plants this year to see if that would force a second bloom sooner. But the ones I didn’t trim had more blooms in the second wave of flowers than the one I trimmed. Lesson learned. After the initial spring trimming, just leave yarrow alone. The plant also spreads but not invasively, so consider that when placing it in a design. We dug up one that was too close to another plant and transplanted it near our farm to attract butterflies and bees. It needs a little more water when first planted or transplanted. After that, it can get by with no water in all but the most severe droughts and survives winters down to zone 3.
Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). Native Americans used many parts of the native four-wing saltbush, including leaves and boiled roots, for food or medicine. It’s also useful to wildlife, grazed by deer and antelope. The name for the bush comes from the four paper-like wings that surround its seeds. There’s no real care needed for saltbush, especially in a natural garden, but you can trim it as desired. When saltbush flowers, it takes on an attractive two-tone effect. The native plant is easy to grow in any soil, and can pop up around roadways in New Mexico. Ours grows far from the garden along a fence. We don’t know if the former owners planted it or if it came up from seed. If you’re worried about it spreading, just learn to recognize the plant’s needle-like leaves and pull up any small plants in your garden or yard.
Jupiter’s beard (Centrathus ruber ‘Coccineus’). At first glance, Jupiter’s beard (also called red valerian) doesn’t look like much. The flowers rise above thin, pointed, pale-green leaves. So it’s a lot of foliage mixed in with small, coral-pink flowers. But these flowers pack a punch! They’ll bring bees and hummingbirds to your garden all summer. And they grow best in dry, hot conditions. Still, red valerian can survive frost down to zone 3, or about -30 degrees F. All you have to do is give Jupiter’s beard a sunny spot and water regularly the first spring and summer. Then you can pretty much leave it alone. We water once in spring, depending on rain. You can cut back old leaves and stalks in spring to give energy to new growth. The plant reaches about 2 feet high and wide.
Winter has come late this year, and that’s alright with me. But we’re sure to face a hard freeze soon and it’s time to protect some plants.
The first line of defense, of course, is to choose plants that are hardy down to your average low winter temperature. These plants might look dead in winter, but they come back as spring warms the air and ground. We can’t control the weather, however, so when exceptions to your typical low hit or you really want a plant on the border for your temperatures, you can help that prized plant make it through the winter. Here are a few tips:
Planning ahead helps. When placing a new plant in your landscape, be sure to consider its winter hardiness when you plant. Placing it in a warm microclimate, such as against a south-facing wall or fence, can keep the plant a few degrees warmer when temperatures dive on winter nights.
Mulching over bulbs or around the roots of perennials and even trees can help the ground retain heat. I use raked-up leaves and sometimes straw. In addition, I use rock mulch around xeric plants. The rocks absorb and reflect heat.
Sadly, we can’t all afford or find space for an actual greenhouse. You can buy or create mini-greenhouses around a few plants. Ours only need a small boost, so we often use 5-gallon buckets with the bottom cut out. We sometimes top them with wire for deer protection or cloth for extra warmth. Glass adds even more warmth and a cloche, French for “bell,” is a glass jar that can cover individual plants. There are lots of ideas online for constructing mini-greenhouses out of plastic and wood or PVC pipe, but you’ll need to remove anything that airtight as soon as the temperature warms back up following a freeze. Otherwise, condensation forms inside; the water drops refreeze and actually can damage your tender plant.
A sheet or blanket wrapped around an entire plant helps protect it from freeze on the occasional cold night. Again, this is a temporary fix. If you have an entire section of plants that need protection, it’s better to rig a system with hoops or sticks and fabric row cover. If leaving the cloth on the entire winter, be sure to use a landscape fabric that allows sun and water through. I like to open these on warm, sunny days.
Plants need to head into winter in a healthy state. That includes keeping them watered (at a reduced rate) if you haven’t received precipitation recently. Cold, windy air dries plants out and stresses them. There is no need to prune most perennials before winter. It’s best to let them die off naturally, feeding birds with seeds. You’ll trim trees while they’re dormant in winter. When freeze threatens, you can water the mulch around the plant, but avoid hitting the leaves and branches. The water in the mulch helps hold heat in. I’ve also seen suggestions of placing used plastic bottles filled with warm water around the mulch to conduct some heat during a freeze.
Bring plants inside
No greenhouse? How about the house? My largest geranium loves the sun from our bathroom window, and the humidity likely helps as well. We have so many plants to bring inside that some have to live in the garage, where it can get chilly but hasn’t gotten below freezing. If you want to invest some money, you can buy grow lights for plants that need more sun than available in your home or garage space. Spray the plants off and let them dry a bit before carrying them inside. This helps reduce the chance that bugs tag along for the ride.
Check out lots more ideas on our Pinterest boards (What’s wrong with my plant? and Greenhouses)
Today’s rant: a preponderance in society, and especially in social media, to make gardening seem like constant landscape perfection. For starters, nurseries, botanical gardens or garden bloggers tend to avoid posting photos of diseased, dead or poorly performing plants. At times, we even enhance our photos with widely available filters.
But that’s pretty normal, right? Consumers are more confident in nurseries with healthy plants. But some photos on social media are enhanced beyond reality, and the constant barrage of perfect plants, fruit and flowers can make millennials and other new or hesitant gardeners believe their gardens must look as rich, lush and perfect as the examples flooding their smartphones.
To exacerbate the problem, popular posts in my social media feeds often have headlines that read like this:
“10 Mistakes Every New Gardener Makes”
“Growing Tomatoes – You’re Doing It All Wrong”
“Top 5 Garden Failures”
Although some posts and authors have great intentions, other sites write headlines primarily for click-throughs. I try not to save or read these, but prefer instead to get my information from positive, researched posts and publications. Nearly everyone who gardens encourages others to try it; that’s especially true of those of us who write about gardening.
But how encouraged can new gardeners be by messages of failure? Believe me, we all experience problems and pitfalls in gardening, no matter what magazines and social media portray. Here are a few ways to overcome concerns about having the perfect looking garden, largest and prettiest fruit, and other pressures:
Learn by trial and error. This is the ultimate in “on-the-job training.” Although it’s frustrating to realize you’ve wasted some time and money on a plant that dies, you learn from your mistakes. Start small on gardening in general and with any new plant or project. If things go wrong, it’s an easier pill to swallow! At any rate, lower your expectations just enough that you do the best you can, but recognize that’s all you can do.
Gather information, but don’t overload yourself. There’s so much out there on gardening and DIY projects that it’s easy to get confused and overwhelmed. Use plant tags and local, credible sources. For example, master gardeners train on topics like general plant and soil health, but also learn about plants specific to their town or region. Books, magazines and websites from your part of the country likely offer the most appropriate advice. There is a definite “East Coast bias” in print and online publishing, and it seems particularly clear in gardening. Those of us in the West and Southwest sometimes have to try a little harder to find pertinent help.
Grow plants you love. Select plants that make you smile but are native to or hardy in your area. The combination really helps. For example, I love orchids, but have trouble maintaining them in a house that averages way below 30 percent humidity. I know I can, but I’m not sure how much time I’m still willing to give them. On the other hand, I’ve found plants I love simply by walking or driving by them. Some were already in place in the landscapes of new homes. If you love the scent and taste of basil, grow some. And if you choose to work with a garden consultant or landscape designer to plan your lawn and garden, get enough information during the process to select colors, scents, textures and edibles that will bring you the most pleasure.
Learn from fellow gardeners. The trial and error aspects of gardening apply to all of us, and often family or neighbors have great advice because they’ve tried something that did or didn’t work. If you know that your mother or best friend had a bounty of delicious snap peas last year, ask for some help getting yours started. Master gardener training and expert advice provide great information, but I’ve learned plenty from friends and family, especially when I’m trying something I’ve never grown before.
Don’t give up. Like I said in a post earlier this month, it’s so tempting to quit when weather, insects and weeds wreak havoc on your best-laid plans. But keep plugging along, recognizing that you’ll have to put up with some weeds or limited flower or fruit production.
The quest for perfection is exacerbated in other areas of life, not just gardening. We want to look like photoshopped models, prepare meals that belong on the cover of gourmet cooking magazines and plan the perfect party or wedding. The truth is, real life involves moderation, imperfection and learning from mistakes.
So just get out there and garden. Plant a new bush in your landscape this fall or buy a succulent to adorn your desk this winter. And enjoy the process along with the results.
It smells fantastic, looks gorgeous, attracts bees and butterflies and needs little water or care. And on top of that, it’s a useful herb. Truly, I can find no drawback to growing lavender in the arid Southwest. Still, I’ve talked to several people while selling at farmers’ markets who say they had trouble establishing or maintaining lavender. So, here are a few tips, because I wouldn’t mind seeing lavender on every corner of every town.
Where to plant lavender
It’s tempting to plant lavender everywhere in the landscape! But the plant does best in full sun and with plenty of air circulation. So, if you plant lavender on the north side of your house, especially up against the house, it might not do well. You can also plant lavender in containers, but might have to amend soil around the plant after a year or two. Be sure to place the container in full sun and give the container plant a little more water than it would need in the ground — but not too much!
Lavender hedges are a summer stunner. But if you want to plant a row of lavender, be sure to leave plenty of spacing between the plants, and between the lavender and other plants or structures in your garden. It won’t look as full the first year. But by year two, you’ll love how the flower stems nearly touch but the plants have plenty of room. And foremost, plant lavender where you can enjoy the scent and pollinators the plant attracts. And check nurseries soon for a new variety from Sunset called “Meerlo,” which has variegated leaves!
When to plant lavender
Whatever date you think is right for lavender, push it back a week. Seriously, the only real problem we had with some lavender plants occurred when a group of new plants were shipped to us too far ahead of our last frost date. Fearing the plants were becoming rootbound in their small nursery pots, I planted as soon as the frost passed. But the ground and air were still a little too cool, plus the dirt did not drain as well as other spots in our garden. So that meant the new plants would stay wet after rain or watering. The only problem that really affects lavender is root rot. So be sure the ground and temperature have warmed up enough before planting.
How to plant lavender
First, make sure the variety of lavender you’re ordered or chosen at a nursery is a perennial in your area. Years ago, I assumed that French lavender (which really is from Spain) would do better in our climate than English lavender. It’s so cool and damp there! But French lavender is not as cold hardy. Most varieties of English lavender, however, can survive U.S. winters. Just check the zone when you buy.
Here’s the trick to success with lavender: Plant it on a small mound. This is a departure from typical attempts to save water by welling around plants. A well can hold water in longer, but lavender wants to take a drink and then dry out. Also, by gathering up a mound of dirt, you give the young roots some nice loose soil.
My second tip is to surround your lavender not with organic mulches, but with tiny white pebbles or decomposed granite. Doing so still allows water to penetrate, but gives the plants reflected sun and passive solar heat gain. If you use rocks and have as many weeds as we have, you’ll need to try and get the mulch layer at least three inches high. But leave a border several inches around the new plant on every side so the rocks don’t crowd the lavender base and constrict growth. Water more often than the plant tag says for a few weeks or more, until the plants look settled in their new home. But let new lavender plants dry out a little between watering or rain.
How to care for lavender
So, you have your lavender established. The hard part’s done! All you have to do how is harvest the gorgeous flower stems as the flowers begin to open in summer. In warmer climates, you often get a second bloom. We’ve found that our second bloom in zone 6B is pretty sporadic, even lousy. So it’s really a matter of choice – you can harvest early and enjoy the scent inside your home, or leave the stems on the plant to enjoy its color and share its fragrance with pollinators.
Just be sure to trim the stems off – right at the top of the leaves – at the end of summer or in early fall. Don’t worry if your plant turns a little gray in winter; it should begin to green up along with other perennial plants in spring. As new leaves begin to emerge in spring, trim your plant for shape and health. That means avoiding cutting down into the woody stems. I give mine a nice round shape. So simple.
That second year, your plant should need little to no watering. I typically give lavender plants some water right after trimming in spring and then only water if we have severe drought.
The stems are easy to dry and place in a vase or use harvested buds to make sachets or potpourri. Lavender is great in homemade gifts and even as an edible.