Weed or Wildflower?

Water-wise gardening in the Southwest means accepting the spread of native wildflowers and using them to fill and brighten a landscape or garden. There’s a fine line between weed and wildflower, however.

Some native species spread so easily under the right conditions that they take over a garden. Others might not be native, but were introduced to an area and thrive when Mother Nature cooperates. That’s why we had a “yellow spring.” Last fall, we noticed pretty little spiral seedlings appearing in the dying grass. We wondered what they were, but left them. In the spring, yellow popped up everywhere.

 

yellow alyssum in New Mexico lawn
Is it weed or wildflower that spread like crazy in early spring? It got yellower and was pretty, but weird.

Don’t get me wrong; it was beautiful. But I spent hours trying to identify the plant. I knew it probably was related to mustard, but it didn’t match any of the typical mustard weeds I could find in my searches. And I searched, and searched, for wildflowers and weeds. Here’s a close-up of it in the garden. And guess what it is?

yellow-alyssum
Alyssum is usually a lovely annual in flower beds. Here is yellow alyssum in our rock garden, where it also grew like crazy.

It’s Physaria (one of several types),  a member of the mustard family and closely related to yellow alyssum, which I first thought it was. And it has both good and bad qualities. I’ve purchased sweet alyssum before as a bedding plant. And in some searches, it’s listed as a great choice to bring beneficial insects. I can vouch for that, because as I walked across our property on a sunny day, there was a low buzz – bees everywhere. I loved it, but it was a little freaky. And I saw one doe get stung on the face.

Physaria is listed as a native of the Rocky Mountains, and alyssum can be listed as a weed in some Western states. This plant has a taproot about a mile long (slight exaggeration) and really only comes up completely if you moisten the soil and pull. I’ve seen conflicting information on whether it threatens native grasses. We’ll know more as spring progresses.

In the photo above is another weed/wildflower: a native verbena (species Glandularia). I’ve bought plenty of verbenas for rock gardens in lovely colors. And these are beautiful too, especially coming up between the yellow flowers out in open grassy areas. They are more leggy and leafy than the hybrid or garden-variety verbenas, however, and will come up just about anywhere:

verbena-weed-new-mexico-xeric-rock-garden
Wild verbena looks pretty against rocks, not so much all over a gravel path.

Now, I have wildflowers I love that spread like weeds, usually by self-sowing. We usually leave them in place. Some are great for color and flower, some for scent. And the beauty is that they adapt so well to the dry conditions that they fill the garden without us having to purchase, plant, and most of all, water new plants.

An early spring favorite is night-scented stock, also called night stock (Matthiola longipetala). Believe it or not, it’s also a member of the Brassicaceae, or mustard family. The scent in early evening is so pleasant, and we love that these come up near the patio. They’re also reseeding in the grass around the garden!

night-scented-stock
Night stock has a delicate and pleasant scent that comes out with its blooms in early evening.

The blanket flower (Gallardia) has always been a favorite and the previous owners made sure we have plenty in our garden. They thrive in drought and have such vibrant colors, as do Mexican hats, or prairie coneflowers (Ratibida columnifera).

mexican-hat-prairie-coneflower
Mexican hats, or prairie coneflowers, pop up everywhere in our garden. These look terrific next to perennial yarrow.

We even admit to leaving a few of the mustard plants intentionally where they complement another plant or look pretty up against a rock or piece of dried wood. We’ll never be able to pull them all or stop the reseeding, and I’m not sure we should. They do attract bees and offer early spring color. But it’s hard enough to get grass to grow in a drought and through various weeds; the physaria species grow most in disturbed areas, so they can fill in to prevent weeds. It is a give and take.

Update in March 2015: The Physaria didn’t choke out the grass last year. It might have delayed grass taking root in a few spots, but we had a beautiful lawn. And yep, it’s already back. I’ve come to accept it, and just want to keep it from spreading across an irrigation ditch to our orchard area. Tim is trying to pull it out of the rock garden beds. I don’t have the energy to fight it. But it’s fun to watch…

 

Making the Most of Native Roses

Our rock garden has a few native roses. We decided to try harvesting some rose hips this fall to see what we could do with them. The rose hip is the fruit left behind after a rose has faded, and one of these bushes was perfect for harvesting the fruit. We could tell because several critters had already been around the bush doing the same.

Unfortunately, I don’t have a good photo of the bush in bloom, and it was a little unruly when we moved in, having not been pruned the previous year while the place was on the market. I gave it a little haircut, but didn’t want to do too much too late in the season. It will get a deeper prune this year!

roses
Here’s a shot of the rose section of the garden. Looking past the weeds, see a new grandiflora a friend gave us (pink blooms) in the foreground and a really prickly native rose to the left. A bushy native rose sits in the middle; it didn’t bloom much, but we think it is pale yellow. Our rose hip plant, which produced pretty pink blooms and tons of fruit, is right of center and back.

Rose hips pack a punch of vitamin C, so we didn’t want them to go to waste. We read up on when to harvest (about a week after the first frost) and waited until a nice day. It ended up taking us a few nice days, a few buckets and a step stool. We never got them all, but as you’ll see later, we have more than we could ever use.

rose hips
A bunch of picked hips, well one tiny bunch, not the entire bunch. From what we read, they should be deep red and just starting to wrinkle or dry a bit. They seemed a little soft and resistant to harvesting the first time we tried, so we waited a week or so and tried again.

First up, jelly. Because it’s sweet, that’s why. We had to pick through and clean off the hips. We found a recipe online and after some trial and error, managed to get enough good liquid out of our boiled hips. They were so pretty and smelled really good while boiling.

boiling rose hips
Pot of boiled rose hips for making jelly. Maybe it was the altitude, but we had to run ours through the fabric again to get enough good syrup for our jelly.

The good news is that the jelly set and we like the taste. We’ve given a few jars away and kept the rest for us. It’s a little tart, but otherwise good. And I love the color. Somehow, I feel less guilty eating buttered toast when I spread the rose hip jelly on it.

rose hip jelly 022
Rose hip jelly. We put up five jars this fall, keeping the extras in the garage (cool) in a small cardboard box (for darkness).

The next attempt was tea. I thought the tea would be a healthy, caffeine-free drink for winter afternoons and evenings. I have not had as much luck with the tea, however. Most recipes say to boil berries for 15 minutes and then crush, steep and strain the contents. Or, you can crush the berries in a food processor and steep them in a tea sock (making sure not to let seeds or hairs from the hips through). But I’ve found that even after steeping for 10 minutes, the tea has little flavor. And after too much time, tea is no longer hot! I’m trying to figure out if I’m doing it wrong (so likely…) or if some of the berries were old, hanging out on the bush since last year.

dried_hips_tea
Drying the hips was easy here, where humidity is…what’s humidity? We laid the first batch on an old window screen over a box, but then just spread them out in an old cardboard box. I keep my processed barriers in a small sealed container and some clean berries in a plastic bag.

I’ll keep experimenting with the tea, maybe adding more crushed berries next time. We’ve got plenty left to use, so many in fact, that when I needed a quick arrangement around the holidays…why not? I threw some of the rose hips into a hurricane vase with some decorative rocks, and it’s still out on a small table in our sun room.

Rose hip art, at least in the eye of this beholder. Rose hips make a great natural craft item when not providing vitamin C in the form of jelly, tea or syrup.
Rose hip art, at least in the eye of this beholder. Rose hips make a great natural craft item when not providing vitamin C in the form of jelly, tea or syrup.

With some good late winter pruning, I hope to improve the yield on both native roses and we’ll see how we do with next year’s crop. In the meantime, I’ll enjoy the flowers, which appear with no  supplemental watering.