Use These Resources for Native Plants and Seeds

Native plants should be the mantra of every xeric gardener. Let’s first review what makes a plant native and why native plants are so beneficial.

native plants southwest
Native and xeric plants blooming in early fall in New Mexico.

What is a Native Plant?

A native plant grows naturally in a particular region or location. To be termed “native,” a plant must have had no human intervention when it first set down roots. That doesn’t mean you can’t plant natives, just that the original plants were, well, original to a region and not introduced. The benefits of choosing native plants are many, including:

Water savings. Plants native to a region and climate should need less water from gardeners in prairies and mountains, relying mostly on Mother Nature alone. Even in areas where drought is less of a concern, native plants should get by on typical rainfall with little supplemental watering after the first year or so.

Convenience. Less watering means less time, in addition to the natural and financial resource savings! Native plants should be easier to maintain as well.

native verbena butterfly
This native verbena grows voluntarily in our garden and grassy areas. That’s OK with the butterflies!

Helping pollinators. As natural areas such as forests and prairies disappear, usually because of development, bees and butterflies have fewer plants they can rely on for the energy they need. Planting natives helps them find nearby food sources. Attracting pollinators always is a good thing – they help tomatoes and other vegetable plants fruit, and your garden improves their habitat. Regardless of the many “right” reasons, you and your family can enjoy watching bees, butterflies and birds as the pollinators enjoy the buffet.

Butterfly bush with butterfly
Buddleia (butterfly bush) is both native and introduced in the Southwest.

Better chance for success. Native plants are adaptable, so if you plant the right plant in the right location and follow care instructions, watering a little more than recommended in the first season or so, your job is easy after that.

Native Plant Resources

Now that I’ve convinced you to go native, where do you find native and pollinator plants for your region? Here are six resources:

  1. Your local nursery, as in locally owned. You’ll find more knowledgeable staff on average here than at big box stores (such as Walmart or Home Depot). Local nurseries tend to grow and sell plants native to your area, and usually can answer your questions, even with some specifics on microclimates in your region. Catalogs that sell to your region or zone also can be helpful, especially in identifying pollinators (typically with an icon of a bee, butterfly or hummingbird).
  2. Apps, especially from local sources. There are some great plant apps or mobile-friendly sites, including GrowIt! And Plants Map. For example, GrowIt! has a search feature for plants within a set radius of your location. As long as there are other members near you, it can be a big help. Plants Map includes communities, resources and individuals in its collections. A search could bring up your nearby botanical garden or private collections. Local apps from trusted sources such as extension offices are great for spotting natives. I use Southwest Plant Selector app, listed on my Resources page. In the future, watch for Leafsnap, a collective effort to offer visual recognition software to help you identify plants, much like a printed field guide.

    native wildflowers New Mexico
    In early spring, before the grass filled in, we had native wildflowers coming up in open areas.
  3. USDA Plant Database. The Department of Agriculture has a database from which visitors can search plants by scientific or common name, and filter by state. It also has a state plants checklist (that looks like HTML code, unfortunately). This site is not sexy, but the best part about it is that once you find a plant you’re considering, a map comes up that indicates whether a plant is native to your state (green fill). It includes a lot of scientific information, but most plants have several photos to help verify identification and if you click on “legal status,” you can learn whether the plant is considered endangered or classified as a noxious weed in your state.
  4. Native plant societies. The North American Native Plant Society has lots of information on natives, including a database searchable by type of habitat and this list of state plant societies. Those state groups with websites or newsletters can be excellent sources, and most offer inexpensive membership.
  5. Friends, family and neighbors. If you see a plant you like, one full or butterflies, or remember a favorite from childhood, ask around. Even if a plant is not native, but seems to do well in your neighborhood, you can ask the homeowner or a local landscape designer about ease of care and hardiness.
Sunflowers from seed
Sunflower seeds are easy to collect. Birds likely dropped these near our house.

Native Seed Resources

Growing natives and pollinator plants from seeds is less expensive, but can require a little more time and water initially. Here are a few sources for information on gathering or buying native seeds:

Xerces Society- In addition to pollinator plant lists for the United States (that unfortunately appear to exclude New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and some other Western states), the society has a seed mix calculator to help with restoration efforts of prairies, etc., with native pollinator plants.

The North American Native Plant Society also has a seed exchange for members and information on collecting seeds from native plants.

Native Seeds/SEARCH is the top source for Southwestern native seeds. Their vault contains native crop seeds for low desert and high desert regions, along with wildflower seeds. It’s a wonderful combination of conservation and native seed resources.

seeds in storage bank
Native seeds in cold storage room at Native Seeds/SEARCH in Tucson.

Check out the Resources page for more information on buying seeds and plants native to your region.

Plant Select’s Top High Plains and Intermountain Plants

Each year various societies present plant awards, but those of us who garden in the West and Southwest await the group of Plant Select top performers. Plant Select, which is a nonprofit joint effort of Colorado State University in Ft. Collins, the Denver Botanic Gardens and professional horticulturalists, lists five top performers at various elevations.

blonde ambition grama
Blonde Ambition ornamental grama grass tops the 2016 Plant Select list. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

First, a word about why the work of Plant Select and other regional groups is so important. As I said, there are plenty of awards and lots of information in the gardening world. But, for the most part, plants emphasized by magazines and bloggers are great for East Coast and Southeastern region gardeners. It’s different in the high plains and intermountain areas of the country, where altitude, wind, and heat and cold extremes (in a single day and by season) affect plant health. And let’s not forget the water issue.

Plant Select evaluates plant performance in 53 locations throughout five Western states. Here are some of the 2016 Top Performers. See the entire list at Plant Select.

Grand Winner: Blonde Ambition Grama Grass

Blonde Ambition grama (Bouteloua gracilis ‘Blonde Ambition’ PP22,048) was introduced by New Mexico’s David Salman of High Country Gardens (American Meadows). Blue grama is a perfect low-water native grass grazed on by cattle on our Southwest ranches. Salman introduced the blonde ornamental variety in 2011, and this is the second year it has been Plant Select’s grand winner. Beginning in July, chartreuse blooms (seedheads) appear on upright stems, turning to the blonde color as they age. Watching those seedheads wave in winter winds provides xeric gardeners some year-round interest in their landscapes. Although Blonde Ambition can spread by seed, the seedlings are easily pulled up. The grass is hardy in zones 4 through 9 and deer resistant.

Blonde ambition seedheads
Blonde Ambition looks great in groups or as a single plant in the xeric garden. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

Top Performer at 3,000 to 5,500 Feet Elevation

Blonde Ambition also tops the list of lower elevation garden performers in the region. Number 2 on the list is a tree I’ve never grown, but want to learn more about since it also topped the list for gardens at my altitude (6,300 feet). The Hot Wings Tatarian maple (Acer tataricum ‘Gar ann’PP15,023) has bright red samaras, or fruit made of paper tissue, that bloom all summer. It’s also known for its reddish-purple fall color. The Tartarian maple is a relatively small tree, maturing to nearly 18 feet high and wide, and gets by with full sun and moderate to dry water needs. The only drawback for me is that it is not deer resistant, but I could see this gorgeous tree in any suburban garden from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation and in zones 4 through 10. We still might try it, but we’ll have to fence the tree until it reaches a mature height and keep lower limbs pruned.

top performer hot wings tartarian maple
The Hot Wings Tartarian maple has a gorgeous canopy, but I also love the trunk. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

Top Performer at 5,501 to 7,000 Feet elevation

Although the Hot Wings maple topped the list of performers at this elevation, I would like to give a nod to No. 2 on the list – Turkish veronica (Veronica liwanensis). Veronica is an excellent low-water groundcover. Veronica is evergreen, so it covers portions of our rock garden all year long. In summer, the groundcover blooms. Turkish veronica has cobalt blue flowers above waxy leaves. It only reaches about 2 inches in height, but can spread to 18 inches wide. Although veronica is a xeric plant, its leaves look better with a little extra water in the heat of summer. Turkish veronica is hardy in zones 3 through 10 and deer resistant. The top 5 Plant Select performers at this elevation also include Blonde Ambition, Apache plume and a catmint called Little Trudy (Nepeta ‘Psfike’ PP18,904).

turkish veronica plant select
Gardeners can prune Turkish veronica around rocks and paths. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

Top Performer in Gardens Higher than 7,000 Feet

Fernbush (Chamaebatiaria millefolium) topped the list for higher elevations. The Western native shrub is xeric once established and grows more upright with less water. It can look more formal with rounded pruning in early winter. Deadheading spent flowers also makes the plant look neater, and should be pleasant considering that the foliage has a honey-like scent. The sweet scent also deters deer. Fernbush can grow to nearly 5 feet high and wide; less water keeps it more compact. The plant thrives in full or partial sun in zones 4B through 8.

fernbush plant select
This fernbush provides year-round interest in a high-altitude garden. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

These are only a few of the top performers in the Plant Select list. Check out their site for more on current and past top performers, new plant introductions for the region and where to buy plants for High Plains and Intermountain gardens.

Five Starter Waterwise Plants

Need to ease into saving water in the lawn? Or just ease into gardening? As you think about next spring and ideas for improving both the look and sustainability of your lawn or garden, consider adding easy-care plants that need little to no watering. Here are five ideas:

Yarrow is an easy xeric plant
Bright yellow yarrow anchors this bed and is accented by light purple salvia and California poppies

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). The woody, herbal rosemary is near the top of my list of favorite xeric plants. The only problem you can have with rosemary is if it receives too much water (or snowpack in winter). Otherwise, try a creeping rosemary near a rock or low garden wall. The stems will grow over the surface and you can trim it in spring just to keep it clean and healthy. I’ve seen bushier varieties shaped into small hedges. And man, what a great-smelling hedge! Finally, be sure to plant a rosemary near your kitchen so you can head out and clip cuttings for cooking use anytime of year (at least in zones 8 through 10). We have rosemary plants that come back each year here in zone 6B. They’re near the house in a rock garden, which helps warm them up. Plant rosemary in full sun and only water occasionally after its first season in the garden. Rosemary plants also reward you with tiny lavender-colored flowers in summer. And although I love the taste of rosemary, deer leave them alone. Bonus!

booming rosemary
This rosemary bloomed in late summer. The foliage alone is attractive and aromatic.

Barberry (Berberis). Barberry comes in several varieties that do well in plenty of sun (or partial shade) and low water. Berberis x ‘Tara’ Emerald Carousel is a type that grows well in alkaline soils, the kind we have here in New Mexico. Depending on the variety, barberry grows a little wider than high. Some Japanese barberries can grow tall – up to 10 feet – so consider that when selecting a plant. Barberry leaves change color with the season, and I’ve seen lime, orange and deep red varieties; they’re all stunning. Several plants along a wall can form a hedge in front of a house or fence. We like the spiky red foliage for its color and texture in our garden and deer usually avoid the plants. Barberries might need a little more water in the first year or so than some plants listed here. After that, they can handle periods of near drought or drought. All you have to do is prune them once or twice a year to keep the shape or size you like. Be sure to wear gloves!

Barberry is a great foundation plant.
Close-up of the maroon-toned leaves and spikes on our barberry.
Sunset's orange rocket barberry
‘Orange rocket’ is a berberis from Sunset that takes heat and little water or care. Image courtesy of Sunset Western Garden Collection.

Yarrow (Achillea). Yarrow is considered an herb, but I grow it for its easy care and stunning colors, which include white, yellow and red varieties. Moonshine yarrow has bright yellow flower clusters that you can cut for arrangements. I also pressed a few this year. This truly is one of the easiest plants to grow. Each spring, you simply cut off the dead flower stalks and clean up the plant. By mid-summer, you’ll have color. I even tried trimming spent flowers off one of our yarrow plants this year to see if that would force a second bloom sooner. But the ones I didn’t trim had more blooms in the second wave of flowers than the one I trimmed. Lesson learned. After the initial spring trimming, just leave yarrow alone. The plant also spreads but not invasively, so consider that when placing it in a design. We dug up one that was too close to another plant and transplanted it near our farm to attract butterflies and bees. It needs a little more water when first planted or transplanted. After that, it can get by with no water in all but the most severe droughts and survives winters down to zone 3.

moonshine yarrow
Moonshine yarrow cluster of flowers.

Four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens). Native Americans used many parts of the native four-wing saltbush, including leaves and boiled roots, for food or medicine. It’s also useful to wildlife, grazed by deer and antelope. The name for the bush comes from the four paper-like wings that surround its seeds. There’s no real care needed for saltbush, especially in a natural garden, but you can trim it as desired. When saltbush flowers, it takes on an attractive two-tone effect. The native plant is easy to grow in any soil, and can pop up around roadways in New Mexico. Ours grows far from the garden along a fence. We don’t know if the former owners planted it or if it came up from seed. If you’re worried about it spreading, just learn to recognize the plant’s needle-like leaves and pull up any small plants in your garden or yard.

four-wing saltbush
Buster runs by our saltbush for helpful scale. I might have to trim this one soon, but love the wild look of the plant.

Jupiter’s beard (Centrathus ruber ‘Coccineus’). At first glance, Jupiter’s beard (also called red valerian) doesn’t look like much. The flowers rise above thin, pointed, pale-green leaves. So it’s a lot of foliage mixed in with small, coral-pink flowers. But these flowers pack a punch! They’ll bring bees and hummingbirds to your garden all summer. And they grow best in dry, hot conditions. Still, red valerian can survive frost down to zone 3, or about -30 degrees F. All you have to do is give Jupiter’s beard a sunny spot and water regularly the first spring and summer. Then you can pretty much leave it alone. We water once in spring, depending on rain. You can cut back old leaves and stalks in spring to give energy to new growth. The plant reaches about 2 feet high and wide.

Jupiter's beard is an easy-care xeric plant.
I don’t have a close-up of Jupiter’s beard, but enjoyed watching hummingbirds on the plant all summer. It’s the one on the upper left with small coral flowers.

Wildflowers and Deer

We’re trying to add more wildflowers to our garden and create small meadows around some areas of the property. One of the challenges in choosing locations and flowers is munching deer.

deer in garden
Deer grazing in winter just a few feet from the house. The stucco buckets cover some succulents that need extra heat and deer deterrent.

Our deer population is not huge, mostly because of a previous wildfire in the forest north of us. I don’t want to exclude deer from the property and am happy to let them graze our grama and other grasses all year long. Although we seldom see the deer once summer days heat up, we see evidence of their munching from time to time.

Blocking deer is the best way to keep plants safe. But it’s much easier to fence around a tree, bush or vegetable garden than it is around a wildflower meadow. Fencing kind of ruins the effect. So, the best way to keep deer from eating the flowers is to plant “deer resistant” varieties. The quotation marks refer to the fact that our deer have not read the plant descriptions. They avoid several plants completely, but every so often, we find surprising telltale signs of deer damage. I think it’s difficult to guarantee deer resistance for most plants.

yarrow salvia
Deer leave yarrow and salvia alone. These are both flowering well into October this year.

Deer-resistant wildflowers

We recently ordered a deer-resistant wildflower seed mix from High Country Gardens that we’ll plant after the first hard frost. Not all of the plants bloom the first year, which is disappointing, but we’ll plant a few deer-resistant annual plants to fill in so the meadow looks colorful for a special event we’re hosting next summer. Here are some of the flowers included in the deer-resistant wildflower mix:

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium); Lanceleaf and plains coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolate and C. tinctoria); Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea); California poppy (Eschscholzia californica); red poppy (Papaver rhoeas); and the trusted blanketflower (Gaillardia), along with several types of lupines (Lupinus) and sages (Salvia).

california poppies
California (Mexican) poppies from seed. The young plants had a little deer damage, but recovered. We’ve left late seedheads on the plants hoping they’ll spread.

This wildflower mix needs full to partial sun – at least six hours of sun a day. We have a few areas that are shadier, so we’re still looking for an easy solution there. In April, I wrote about five drought-tolerant plants that love shade. Columbines come to mind, of course, but some salvias take at least partial shade and are deer resistant. Then again, some shade lovers, like hostas, attract deer. We’ve also got some rocky areas, and plan to sprinkle white love-in-a-mist (Nigella) seeds and gathered larkspur (Delphinium consolida) seeds this fall as well.

salvia and paper flower
Most wildflowers and low-water perennials need some sun. Some types of salvia can tolerate partial shade.

Keeping deer out of meadows

One strategy for keeping deer out of wildflower patches is to surround the area with aromatic plants that deer avoid, such as lavender or rue. There are lots of deer deterrent products; I’ve had success with Messina’s Deer Stopper spray on plants in our xeric garden that deer had previously disturbed. The product remains effective for about 30 days, but I have to remember to spray regularly for continued protection. Spraying an entire meadow would take way too long, but I think the spray could be really effective on those flowers we’re most concerned about or know deer have eaten in the past.

deer stopper spray
This poor little rose has been stepped on and eaten by deer. I’m spraying it now to keep them off this winter and give it a fighting chance.

Finally, if uncertain about the best wildflower choices for a meadow, work with what you have. You can try gathering seeds from native plants or leave the area unmowed at the end of the season and let nature spread the seeds for you. I’ve done that in an area with a higher grama-to-weed ratio, and hope that each time I walk through it, I spread grama and flower seeds. We pulled as many weeds from it as we could to give the native plants like grama, wild blanketflowers, verbena and daisies a better chance of reseeding.

blanketflower seed head grama
Native grama grass and blanketflower seedheads left unmowed in my meadow experiment.

Note: Messina’s sent me a free sample of Deer Stopper spray, but did not influence my use or review of the product.

10 Gardening Terms Explained

New to gardening? Or just not a horticulturist, botanist or even a master gardener? Then you likely get confused by some of the terms you see on plant tags, in nursery catalogs and even in blogs like this one. You’ll enjoy gardening much more if you can weed through the jargon (and the puns). Here are 10 terms explained in plain language to get you started:

xeriscaping defined
Xeriscaping is a misunderstood (and mispronounced) term. And it’s not just about growing cacti in gravel!

10. Xeriscaping. This one’s my favorite, of course. And as I’ve said before, it’s xeriscaping, from xeros, the Greek word for dry … not ZEROscaping. In other words, it’s planning a lawn and garden that uses the least possible water. In most cases, this means using drought-tolerant plants (see no. 1), but xeriscaping also involves using native plants adapted to your climate and conditions, along with lots of other strategies for landscape design and plant choice.

xeric plants agastache
Xeric perennials come back year after year with very little effort or water.

9. Perennial. The word means long lasting, and that’s pretty much true of perennial plants as well. A perennial grows in your yard for more than two years, often for much longer before it needs replacing. Remember that perennial varies based on where you live. For example, the well-known geranium can be a perennial in a warm climate, but I have to bring mine inside for winter. And don’t freak out if a perennial plant disappears or looks dead after frost. You’ll likely see new growth on it come spring. Planting mostly perennials in your garden usually leads to less work and less watering.

geranium container
Geraniums can’t survive our winters. But unlike most annuals, we can keep them alive all year, and often blooming, in a sunny window. I just sprayed this one off in preparation for the move back inside.

8. Biennial. A biennial plant lives for two years, or two growing seasons. Seeds start the plant’s root, stem and leaf growth in the first year, but the plant doesn’t produce flowers, fruit or seeds until the second year. After that, the plant typically dies, but can spread seeds before dying back. An example of a biennial is the foxglove (Digitalis). Another is one of my favorites, the columbine (Aquilegia), which might flower the first year, or might put all of its energy into leaf and stem growth, and then flower the following year. Some forms of poppy (Papaver) also are biennials. And unfortunately, some weeds also are biennials. They take on a tiny round leaf form, survive the winter that way and then flower and spread seeds, lots of seeds, the next year.

columbine flower
Columbines are considered biennial flowers, but they usually re-seed in the same area of the yard, garden or forest!

7. Annual. An annual lives only one year, or for one growing season. Still, some annuals re-seed, so if you’re willing to let Mother Nature design your garden layout, you can let annual flowers dry up and produce seeds. Annuals are great for small containers and adding color to a garden or patio each year. But they usually require more time, money and even water in the long run than perennial plants.

zinnias
It’s easy and inexpensive to grow annual zinnias from seed.

6. Native. A native plant was likely in your town before you moved in. These plants grow naturally in specific regions or conditions. They should not become invasive if they’re planted in their native region. The real benefit of native plants (aside from their beauty in the garden, forest or along roads) is that they’ve done most of the work already. They know how to survive weeks with no water or really high spring winds. Selecting native plants is one of the most effective xeriscaping strategies.

California poppy
Many poppies are native to New Mexico and thrive in our dry, sunny conditions.

5. Specimen plant. Lots of catalogs refer to a bush or flower as a “specimen plant.” This has nothing to do with strange botany experiments. All it means is that the plant can stand on its own as a focal point in a garden or landscape design. For example, petunias or begonias look much better in mass plantings, which means groups of the same or similar flowers for a dramatic look. Mass plantings might become hedges or adorn the entry to your local mall. Landscapers might plant a row of 100 marigolds and a row of 200 petunias for striking color. On the other hand, a specimen plant shines all by itself.

boxwood
This boxwood is a specimen plant near our front entry, while the ajuga that line the shaded beds are more of a mass planting.
boxwood hedge
While visiting Atlanta-area gardens, I noticed lots of boxwoods planted in mass as hedges.

4. Invasive. Typically, an invasive plant is a nuisance at the least. It can choke out other plants and grasses, climb around and choke bushes or simply compete for precious water. Invasive plants grow easily and rapidly, usually because they are not native to the area. Just remember that these terms are all relative. A plant native to a particular part of the country might be considered invasive after being introduced to a different region. When a plant becomes invasive, it probably crosses that very thin line between wildflower and weed. One of the most troubling weeds we encounter is field bindweed (Convulvulus arvensis), which is considered invasive in all of the lower 48 states, Hawaii and Canada. Maybe on the moon…

field bindweed root
Field bindweed stem and root, with my foot for scale. The roots usually break off so the plant can grow right back — in nearly any condition, including through concrete.

3. Deciduous. If a tree or shed is deciduous, that simply means it loses its leaves in fall and winter. The opposite would be evergreen, trees that keep their leaves all winter. Deciduous plants shed their leaves as a protection against upcoming cold. Many turn rich, deep shades of gold and bronze before falling, which gives the yard and garden color as summer flowers fade.

fall vine
Deciduous trees, shrubs and vines provide the stunning fall colors that mark the season.

2. Pollinator. You might see list articles on blogs and social media mentioning “pollinator plants.” This means that the plant attracts bees and other insects that help promote flower and fruit production. The insects disturb and transfer tiny grains of pollen in flowers. Without bees, most fruit trees and many vegetables would produce little to no fruit. Many native plants, herbs and vegetables attract bees, butterflies, moths, hummingbirds and other pollinating insects to the garden. They’re essential plants to help maintain honey bee populations, which have been declining. Here’s a list of New Mexico pollinator plants. Many gardening books and catalogs place a tiny icon of a butterfly or bee in descriptions to let you know they attract pollinators.

verbena wild
This swallowtail was enjoying our verbena today; the verbena comes up on its own.

And No. 1: Drought tolerant. Back to an important xeriscaping principle. Plants that are drought tolerant can go longer periods of time without water; it means basically the same as xeric, but is a little more direct. Plants with drought tolerance and resistance have characteristics that help them survive in these conditions. And all it usually takes is a little bit of rain to make them thrive, green and flower. Just remember – if you purchase drought tolerant plants, be sure to water them regularly for the first few weeks or months and up to the first year, depending on the plant and its size. The water keeps the plant alive through the shock of transplant and helps the roots get established.

bee buzzing on lavender stalk
Lavender, a drought-tolerant perennial herb that’s also a pollinator plant.

 

Six Favorite Reseeding Flowers

Wildflowers that reseed are a perfect plant for busy and cash-strapped gardeners. Once you get them going in the garden, they’re sure to come back for years. The trick is to deadhead or cut the flowers for arrangements while in peak bloom and then let some spent flowers go to seed.

cosmos
Crazy cosmos! Ours have been popping up in the same area of our rock garden for four years. By leaving most of the spent flowers on the plant into fall, they easily reseed and feed finches.

With that in mind, choose a few plants or seeds for your favorite low-water annual and enjoy the colorful rewards for years. Here are six favorites of mine, most of them in the Aster (Asteraceae) family:

No. 1: Cosmos

Start with annuals or easily grow cosmos from seed. They come in a number of colors, including several versions of pinks and purples and white. The flower is a native of Mexico and can reach various heights depending on the mix and growing conditions. With too much water, they get a little tall and leggy. Sow cosmos after your last spring frost. Let several go to seed in fall to feed birds and provide next year’s color.

cosmos bloom
Close-up of a cosmos bloom.

No. 2: Blanketflower

Gaillardia, or blanketflower, is an annual or a perennial in zones 3 through 11. It reseeds in our garden and lawn. This drought-tolerant beauty adds yellows, orange and rust tones to the garden. The blooms attract bees and butterflies. Blanketflowers bloom best if the gardener deadheads spent flowers, cutting the stem just above the next set of leaves down the stalk. You can also cut the plant by about one-third at the end of summer instead of regularly deadheading. If you want the flowers to reseed in your garden, leave some dried heads on the plant well into fall.

gaillardia and cosmos in rock garden
Oh no, another cosmos photo. But this one shows the contrast with the earthy colored blanketflower.

No. 3: Mexican hat

Called Mexican hat or prairie coneflower, the Ratibida columnifera is yet another member of the Aster family that reseeds easily. Mexican hats can bloom all summer long with little to no water, adding earthy colored blooms to xeric gardens. They attract bees and are considered an herb with touted use to ease stomach pain or headaches. When planted from seed, they might not bloom until the second year, but will reseed. Because the seeds need cold to help them germinate, those dropping from a plant in fall in zones 4 through 9 stand an excellent chance of becoming new plants in spring.

Mexican hat
We have different colors of blooms on our Mexican hats, from mostly yellow to more of a deep rust. As you can see, they grow right out of the rocks.

No. 4: California/Mexican gold poppy

These wildflowers in the poppy family love sun and drought, but bloom best after summer rains. We call them California poppies (Eschcholzia californica). Mexican gold poppies are a subspecies of E. californica that thrive in desert settings. Both have feathery leaves and flowers about 2 inches in diameter that resemble a cross between an oriental poppy and a tubular or cupped flower. Deadheading the remaining seedhead helps them produce more flowers, but letting the seeds develop late in summer could lead to a new stunning poppy across the yard!

California or Mexican poppy
This deep orange poppy was in a wildflower seed mix.

No. 5: Coreopsis

Yet another member of the Aster family, coreopsis is a great self-sower. It might take over a garden in the right conditions, but our Lanceleaf Coreopsis, a classic yellow bloomer, spreads nicely in our dry climate. If you want more color, coreopsis won’t disappoint. Here, Sunset Magazine lists a dozen favorites for western gardens. Some varieties such as lanceleaf are perennials, depending on zone. They’re a fun, natural looking plant with flowers suitable for cutting.

lancelead coreopsis
Coreopsis blooms are similar to daisies. This plant has a few drying flower heads.

No. 6: Wild daisies

Like their relative the sunflower, native daisies in the Aster family can spread easily and pop up in unexpected locations. We have several that bloom in late fall and spread mostly by seed. The trick is recognizing these gems among a stand of weeds so you can let them grow to maturity and bloom, then reseed. Some wild daisies are invasive, but they’re easy to control in our dry climates. Bidens alba, also called common beggartick or Spanish needle, has tiny white flowers on lanky stems. They’re pretty and are touted to have herbal or medicinal uses, but as friends of mine pointed out, they have needle in their name for a reason. The seedheads not only help the flower spread, but get caught in nearly anything they touch, including dogs’ coats.

Spanish needles and asters
Mountain aster on the right and Spanish needle bloom and seed heads on the left.

You don’t necessarily need to gather seeds from these flowers unless you want to try the plant in a different area. We’ve had mixed success with that, maybe because a particular flower tends to reseed where conditions are best for the plant.

wild daisy New Mexico
I think this is a cowpen daisy, but am not certain. At any rate, the flower prefers our ditchbank and likely wouldn’t grow as well in a more controlled garden.

If you’d like to grow some of these reseeding flowers in your garden, check with your local master gardeners or a regional garden book or blog to see which types grow best in your region without becoming invasive. Of course, I go with the premise that I can always thin volunteer flowers if they get out of hand. That usually only means smack-dab in the middle of a walkway…

Sunflower from birds
Sunflowers are the top surprise reseeders, thanks to birds and wind.

Xeric Plants: Too Much Rain?

You know, I hate to sound ungrateful. We always need rain in New Mexico, if not to water all of the grass, trees and native plants, then to replace our valuable water tables. But in a climate of extremes, especially this summer, we’ve had several weeks of too much water and cool temperatures.

xeric garden after rain
I’m not bemoaning natural moisture. August rains brought greener native grasses and lot of blooming annuals. But it’s good to know what happens when too much rain hits a xeric garden.

Typically, New Mexico and many Southwestern states receive monsoon rain in the summer, and it accounts for at least half of the rain we receive in New Mexico and Arizona. Monsoons can start around mid-June and end late in September. Ours typically begin around the 4th of July. Monsoons consist of short but strong bursts of rain, usually in the afternoon. They’re fueled by the sun’s warming of Southwest land and nearby oceans at different rates. Water evaporation creates humidity over land, forming the clouds that then depend on temperature, atmospheric pressure, winds and mountain slopes to turn into storms.

ravens in dead tree
The clouds seem to bring birds out for active eating before they take cover from summer storms. These ravens love perching in a dead tree.

Typical is key here, however. This year, we had few to no monsoon storms. Instead, we had unseasonably hot and dry, followed by weeks of unseasonably cool and wet. The first rains did wonders at greening up our native grasses and plants. But then in August, the rain and clouds just kept coming. We just had a break, but now Hurricane Newton has struck Mexico and its remnant moisture is headed for southern Arizona and New Mexico.

Rio Ruidoso
Rain replenishes the river and ground water, but excessive moisture can topple old trees.

If arid areas need rain, why is so much rain bad? Flash flooding is a big problem in desert and mountain areas. But how does heavy rain affect xeric lawns and gardens?

First, plant roots need more than water to survive and thrive; they also need air. When you place a new plant in the ground, for example, you should press the soil around it lightly and avoid compacting it to the point that air can’t reach the roots. When excessive rain falls, the water replaces air in spaces around soil particles. As the water drains through the soil, air can again enter the spaces. But if the water keeps flowing from the surface, or especially pools, the spaces fail to open. Eventually, roots can be damaged and fail to even take up the water that surrounds them.

amended soil for vegetables and herbs
Adding organic matter eventually helps compacted soils drain better.

The second danger of too much water is disease. Any fungal organisms in the soil can more easily attack wet plant roots and cause root rot. Xeric plants are not used to so much water on their leaves and roots. Even leaves are affected by too much water falling and sitting on them, especially without sun and heat to dry them again. Plants are more susceptible to leaf diseases such as leaf spot or blight and have less chlorophyll, which affects appearance and photosynthesis. Eventually, poor leaf health can lead to the breakdown of most of the processes that keep a plant healthy and send energy to fruit and flowers.

mushrooms on tree stump
This old apple tree stump started a mini-mushroom farm after extended rain and clouds. What other fungi lurk in our soil now?

Many xeric plants also like sun and a little heat. Native plants have adapted to the Southwest monsoon patterns that usually rule their growing season: A gradual, sunny warm-up in the morning, followed by scattered building clouds. They get a nice drink in the heat of the afternoon, and then the sun comes back out and the air and ground warm up again. This pattern helps dry the plant and soil, and gives the plant plenty of heat and sun. Although nights can be cool in many areas of the high desert and intermountain regions, mornings warm up again after sunrise. Extended periods of cloudy, cool weather lead to too little sun for plants, along with too little heat than they need to thrive and flower.

cracked cherry tomatoes
Tomatoes need some heat and sun, along with consistent watering. These cherry tomatoes cracked before we could harvest them. It’s likely a combination of remaining on the vine too long and a surge of water from heavy storms.

Even edibles can have problems from too much water. They’re susceptible to root rot, depending on lots of other factors such as soil quality. Leafy vegetables and herbs flower early. Tomato fruit tastes better with moderate water. Too much water, especially inconsistent amounts, can cause fruit to crack.

Keeping Xeric Plants Alive During High Rain Periods

Make sure all plants, and especially those susceptible to root rot, are in soil that drains well. Raised beds, mounds or berms, and suitable containers can help drain soil around plants much better than compacted soil. If you’re not sure how well your soil drains, you can typically tell when it pools or soaks in hours after heavy rains. Or you can try the test in this handout from TreePeople that times water drainage.

okra plants
My husband is much better at spacing plants than I am. These okra didn’t get enough heat to produce much, but spacing helped the fruit get more sun and air.

Provide air circulation. We all have a tendency to place new plants and seedlings too close together. You might as well get as many cucumbers as possible in the limited space you have, right? But lack of air circulation in crowded plants hides bugs, causes the leaves to maintain moisture, and even can shade ground around roots. Wet conditions harbor new problems that native plants in particular can’t take.

California poppy
Flower from a poppy (Mexican gold or California Eschscholzia californica) thrives in drought, but can bloom more in heavy rain. As for the “garden art” it borders, that’s something personal between Tim and a steer.

Another problem with extended periods of rain is weed control. Although mostly native, the darn weeds seem to love excess moisture. And before you know it, they crowd and wrap around important garden plants or shading grasses. It’s hard to control them if the ground is too wet to mow or you can’t even get outside.

Build raised beds or transplant susceptible plants to higher ground. We’ve had some drainage problems near our patio and are working on a dry river bed to divert water away from the house foundation and down into a grassy area, where it can soak grass and eventually add to groundwater. One step we took was to divide a blue mist spirea (Caryopteris clandonensis) and move the portion near the patio onto a small burm. The xeric plant is so much happier now.

blue mist spirea berm
The dry bed is a work in progress, but just moving this blue mist spirea to higher ground saved the plant.

Whatever you do, don’t water! Turn off drip or sprinkler systems during and after periods of rain; it’s just the responsible thing to do. And don’t assume that yellowing leaves indicate the need to water. With too much water, the leaves look sort of floppy, but too little water usually causes dry, brittle foliage.

Finally, don’t stress. You can’t control weather, so simply keeping your plants as healthy as possible within time and weather constraints is all a gardener can do!

Favorite Xeric Plant: Gaura

Some call it a butterfly plant. That’s because gaura has delicate, swirly flowers at the ends of long stalks that resemble butterflies. In fact, one variety of gaura (G. lindheimeri) is called ‘Whirling Butterflies.’ It has white flowers; ‘Siskiyou Pink’ blooms have an earthy pink tone. And in 2014, Gaura ‘Sparkle White’ was an All-America Selections National Winner.

Eight stamens jut out from the delicate flower up long stems. No wonder they bring butterflies to mind.
Typically, eight stamens jut out from the delicate flower up long stems. No wonder gauras bring butterflies to mind.

We’re fortunate enough to have wild or native gauras (G. coccinea) in our garden. They appear on their own in late spring and bloom as temperatures warm. They’re a little more like a weed, partly because of the places they tend to appear, and partly because they have a higher foliage-to-flower ratio. Still, I’ll take them, and so will the bees!

Wild gauras have less attractive shape and foliage, but they pop up from seed!
Wild gauras have less attractive shape and foliage, but they pop up from seed!

Drought tolerant gaura

Native gauras appear along roadsides and other dry areas. Many of ours come up through rocks in the garden wall. You don’t have to read a plant tag to know that a plant growing robustly in rocks needs little to no water. We’ve had some trouble with gaura from nurseries, and I believe the reason is that the soil we chose was compacted and holding too much water. Still, if you plant a new gaura, it will need watering until healthy and established. A drip system can give the plant a slow drink.

This flower is from a volunteer gaura.
This flower is from a volunteer gaura.

Easy care

Once you’ve chosen a sandy or loamy soil for your plant, place it where it can get full sun. By the second year, you won’t have to water except maybe once in spring or in severe drought. I really love to place the white flowers where I can see them from a window or patio. It’s also a great plant for breezy areas, holding up to wind, which causes the flowers to “dance.” Most gauras reach about 2.5 to 3 feet tall; the native  varieties are a little shorter.

gaura against rocks
Gauras look terrific in rock gardens and natural designs.

Cut G. lindheimeri back in early spring about halfway down the foliage to keep it bushy, full and not too leggy. I let the native gauras go to seed so they pop up again the next year. You can try the same with nursery varieties; the plant might self-sow if seedheads remain in autumn. The only pests that bother gauras are flea beetles and gardeners who overwater them, especially if the plants are in heavy soil.

Versatile plant

Gauras are hardy in zones 5 through 8. In colder zones, the plant can be damaged if wet when temperatures dip to more than -15 Fahrenheit. Gaura is considered a perennial in those zones, but tends not to last as long as some hardy perennials.

gaura and gaillardia
These volunteer, or native, gauras popped up with volunteer gaillardias. I love the combination.

The gaura can fit into nearly any landscape design. Even before blooming, its slightly mottled leaves provide garden interest. I love to see it against a slightly taller plant with larger, bolder flowers (which also can support the gaura stems as the plant matures). Gaura also is perfect near steps, garden paths and walls. Although gaura fits perfectly in a natural xeric design, its delicate flowers can work in a cottage garden plan, provided it’s not overwatered or has really good drainage. Native gaura foliage and shape is not as stunning, but nonetheless a fun re-seeder in a naturalized xeric garden.

 

 

Want Easy Garden Maintenance? Go Native!

There are so many “right” reasons to choose native plants: They need less water and often attract pollinators. But if you need an even better reason, one that appeals to you in your busy world, how about the fact that they’re easier to maintain?

Think about it. By nature (hmmm, native and nature), native plants grow in the open, such as in forests or plains. Away from people, the plants can survive no matter the rainfall or other weather problems. And many reseed to ensure continued survival. They can do all of this without a nice lady in a funny hat and brightly colored gloves “tending” to them.

Paperflower
This paperflower (Psilostrophe) came up in the rocks near our creeping broom for nice succession blooming.

Why native plants are easy care

Once a plant native to your region is established, which can take up to a year, it should need little to no watering. And it should never need fertilizer or other chemicals. These plants have adapted to their native conditions and are less susceptible to pests and diseases than non-native plants. As long as the plant is in the right spot in terms of sun, soil and climate, all you need as a gardener is a little patience. Don’t amend the soil or overwater your new native (although they need more water in the first year to help the roots establish). Your native might not flower prolifically in its first year, and wildflower seeds can remain dormant in the ground before suddenly popping up when conditions favor their germination and growth.

native rock rose
Rock rose (Helianthemum) is an easy-care native plant and a stunner.

Of course, just because a plant is listed as “native,” if you plop it down in completely different conditions or climate, the plant might not make it or could turn out to be as much work as a big-box store purchase. For example, the Teddy Bear Cholla (Opuntia bigelovii) is listed as a native plant in New Mexico. But it grows naturally at elevations of 100 to 5,000 feet. And elevation makes a big difference in the Southwest. We’re at 6,300 feet, and our nights can easily dip below the 22 degrees F listed for warmer Sunset zones that support the cholla (zones that are less than an hour away to the east or west). Likewise, planting a cholla in a bed with drip or spray irrigation could damage the plant more than cold. It prefers low water, full sun and sandy soil. No wonder it does so well in the deserts of New Mexico and Arizona!

Tiny daisies are a favorite wildflower. I believe these are whiplash daisies.
Tiny daisies are a favorite wildflower. I believe these are whiplash daisies.

How to select native plants

So caring for native plants is easy, but since so much depends on plant choice and placement, how can you make that process easier? Here are a few ideas:

  • Notice plants you see and love in the lawns of neighbors, commercial buildings and even along roadways or on nearby hikes (but don’t steal native plants in the wild). Take photos to help with identification and note where and when you saw the plant.
native wildflowers New Mexico
Daisies, shrubby ice plant, a native gaura forming (and weeds).
  • Although I said to select plants native to your region, plants native to nearly the same conditions also do well. Several cold-hardy natives of South Africa, such as Red Hot Poker (Kniphofia) and Hardy Purple or Yellow Iceplant (Delosperma) do really well in the mountainous Southwest.
shrubby ice plant
Here’s a close-up of the shrubby ice plant. Its flowers are smaller than the spreading types, but just as bright. And it’s a compact choice for rock gardens.
  • Local books and apps are the best source for identifying the plants you see near your home. Some national sites (such as the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center) have accurate search engines, but others can confuse you if your search brings up a low-growing shrub with purple flowers that only grows in Georgia.
Wild verbena and even wilder alyssum.
Wild verbena and even wilder alyssum.
  • Get help from professionals. Local landscape designers know native plants, and should encourage their use. Call your master gardener hotline or check with a local extension office or native plant organization to get help identifying and selecting plants for your area.
daisy native agastache
Native daisy that needs only shearing of flower stems after fading, and an agastache, which brings hummingbirds.
  • If you can’t identify a plant but have it in your garden, try not to stress. We’ve got several plants we have yet to clearly identify, but we’ve watched their natural patterns of growth and blooming and just played along. In most cases, I only shear off spent flower stalks in early spring to reinvigorate the plant.
I still haven't figured out this pretty spring bloomer in a mounding form. If anyone knows, please comment!
I still haven’t figured out this pretty spring bloomer in a mounding form. If anyone knows, please comment!

And if you have a native you really love and want to use elsewhere in your lawn, try saving seeds, propagating a cutting or dividing the plant. See the Resources page for a list of native plant lists or nurseries.

 

 

Favorite Tree: Redbud

It’s not the plant you typically think of when considering trees for a waterwise landscape. But redbuds (Cercis species) can do quite well in areas of New Mexico, Texas and Oklahoma. The tree is native to New Mexico and states east and northeast of us, along with Quebec.

redbud in low water garden
In early April, the redbud is saturated with bright pink-purple flowers.

Even though the redbud produces gorgeous purplish-pink flowers and large, heart-shaped leaves, it’s a low to moderate water user. We only irrigate ours once or twice a year, and rely on rain or snow for the rest of its water.

redbud blooms New Mexico
Redbud blooms signal spring and bring some bees to the garden.

Multiple choice

There are numerous choices of redbud varieties, and gardeners are bound to find one that grows in their zone and soil conditions. The most well-known variety is the Eastern redbud (C. canadensis) but a few types, such as the Mexican redbud (C. mexicana), have multiple trunks. The Oklahoma redbud (C. reniformis) grows more slowly than the Eastern, but has round, glossy leaves. All are fairly small as trees go, reaching no more than 25 or 30 feet in height and width.

redbud in xeric garden
Buds first emerging in spring. This redbud complements other plants in our xeric garden.

I’m pretty certain ours is a typical Eastern redbud because of its single trunk and more matte than glossy leaves. It’s possible that the former owners of our place, who planted this stunner, trained a multitrunk variety as a single trunk. But I’m pretty certain it’s Eastern and the growth is maintained by lower water application and Tim’s trimming. I’m open to correction, though it really doesn’t matter to me. I love this tree!

redbud leaves
Large, heart-shaped leaves look awesome in summer and as fall begins to turn them yellow and then bronze.

Multiple uses

I’d grow this tree for the spring and fall color alone. It’s perfect for a xeric landscape because it gets by on so little water and grows slowly. The shrubby varieties probably look more natural, but with a rounded canopy, the Eastern redbud can provide shade and color. I’ll admit that ours is a bit low; we have to duck under the lower branches. But it also works well for a bird house and feeder. I can reach it fine, but the birds feel protected.

redbud and red bird house
Birds love our redbud, which is the tallest plant in our garden.

Redbuds send their roots deep into the ground, which makes them less likely to run under sidewalks or around sewer pipes. That gives you more choices for planting the tree near your house. In a southern location, the tree gets plenty of sun and can shade a portion of the garden or your home. Since it drops all of its leaves in winter, it won’t block warming rays of sun. Bees also love the spring flowers.

Caring for redbuds

If you want to train a shrubby redbud into a single trunk, cut out the weaker stems early in summer. Too much salt can lead to leggy growth of immature redbuds. The tree, which is a member of the legume family, is susceptible to several insects, including white peach scale, white flannel moth and several caterpillars, including stinging ones. A few years ago, Tim spotted some bare branches and found them covered with stinging caterpillars (see a photo of one in our Chinese pistache in this post).

In the Southeast, redbuds are vulnerable to Botryosphaeria canker. The disease can cause branches to split, die back and turn brown. Fungal diseases on redbuds are less likely in our arid climate, except maybe if the tree is too close to a structure or other trees to have adequate air flow. Ours has a splitting branch, but I’m guessing it’s from cold damage or a combination of cold and weight. And there is plenty of new growth on the stems.

split in redbud branch
We just noticed the split in this large branch this winter, but it looks healthy otherwise.

Redbuds prefer full sun and most varieties can survive in zones 5 through 8. You can prune a redbud for shape while the tree is dormant in winter, but it might cause fewer blooms. It’s probably best to prune just after spring flowers fade.

Native, waterwise, good for shade, multiseason color and easy care. What’s not to love about the redbud? Learn more about redbud care and problems in this excellent publication from Clemson University.