Harvesting Rainwater for Your Garden

The drought is easing here as April showers finally arrived and turned into a few May thunderstorms. Our rain barrels are overflowing, and it makes me happy, but crazy. (I need to check and see if I say “xxx makes me crazy” on every post. This is a troublesome pattern.) Anyway, I hate to see any of that precious resource go to waste. In reality, I know it’s watering the natural grass, trees and plants, flowing into the river, and adding to our water table. But I want to collect as much of it as I can to avoid use of our well water for most of the year.

Backyard rain barrel
This is a basic, 50-gallon rain barrel used as needed for xeric ornamentals and herbs. I’ll use it soon for some vegetables.

From 30 percent to 50 percent of public or potable water in a given community can go to landscaping. I know we could use more than that between our fruit trees and vegetable gardens. It’s imperative that we all continue to find ways to cut the amount. I tackle that as often as I can on this blog, but for now, I want to focus on rainwater collection and safety of rainwater for edibles.

Rain barrels and cisterns

Our two 50-gallon rain barrels just don’t cut it. And I have big plans to add more, including a huge above-ground or underground cistern. Most homeowners use barrels similar to ours to water ornamental gardens. We’ve found that they’re easy to install, and work pretty well, although Tim has had to replace the faucet on some. You can add a hose to the bottom of the barrel or fill a watering can from the spigot. The barrels cost around $80 to $135, depending on quality, size and appearance.

bottom or rain barrel with faucet
Our basic barrels have a spigot for filling water pails and a hose connection.

Cisterns cost more, and generally are used by commercial operations. But if we ever get our greenhouse (see my comment above about what makes me crazy, as in not having one yet), I think it would be difficult and irresponsible to add year-round gardening without having rainwater collection. A 1,000-gallon tank runs close to $600 or more, and you can expect to pay up to $5,000 for a 10,000-gallon cistern, plus excavation if it’s going underground. Of course, with all cisterns, you have to consider some installation costs, plus shipping or transportation and permits in some cases.

Roof water for vegetable gardens

In the past, I heard that roof water was not safe for watering edibles, and I avoided using rain barrel water from my tar and gravel roof on herbs or vegetables. But we now have a metal roof, and I feel comfortable using the barrels to water ornamentals and edibles. I wanted to back that up with science, however, so I found some great information from Rutgers University’s New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.

downspout over rain barrel
A metal roof, gutters and downspout bring water to our two rain barrels. The barrel has a screen to prevent debris or birds from getting inside.

The study tested safety of rain barrel water for irrigation of a vegetable garden. In short, they found that rainwater collected from asphalt shingle roofs met irrigation water standards, with a few exceptions. E. coli sometimes appeared in the samples because of droppings from birds, squirrels or other animals. And rain barrel water is not safe to drink, but is considered safe to use to water the soil (roots) of your vegetables. The authors of the study recommended a few practices to ensure the rain water remains safe:

  • Clean rain barrels with a 3-percent bleach solution before collecting water you’ll use for herbs and vegetables. Since you need to empty the barrel before winter (unless you are in a mild climate), you can clean it before each spring. Or simply add household bleach at a rate of 1/8 teaspoon per gallon of water twice a month during heavy rainfall). It’s diluted enough to prevent any harm to plants after about 24 hours.
  • Pour the rain water directly onto the soil, not on the plant’s leaves, or use it in drip irrigation.
  • Water in the morning and harvest at night. This gives the sun’s rays time to disinfect leaves. Morning watering is a better xeric technique, anyway.
  • It also helps to clean your gutters before spring rains hit, just to cut down on dirt and debris.

Altitude and Wind Affect a Plant’s Water Needs

If you’ve ever gone skiing or hiking in the mountains of the Southwest, you’ve heard the warnings (or ignored them and learned the hard way). Drink lots of water, more water than you normally drink. You also might have noticed that you became breathless a little more quickly. All those warnings aren’t just designed to impress flat-landers or to make up for exertion. There’s science behind high-altitude dehydration of people and plants.

Low Pressure Causes Evaporation

Air pressure is lower at higher altitudes, and that means that moisture evaporates more quickly. It evaporates from lungs and from the soil and roots around plants. Add the fact that most high-desert and mountain climates also are low in humidity, and you’ve got to adapt to a new environment or nearly pass out. The same goes for your landscape, which is another reason to stick with native plants. These guys have toughed it out; they’re not just here for a weekend getaway! If you do choose non-native cultivars, plant them sparingly, and try to use them in protected areas, which leads to my next point.

 

snow on southwestern mountains
My daughter took this photo of snow on the mountains along the Arizona-New Mexico border one December. A holiday snow does not mean a humid climate.

Why Not Add Some Wind to the Mix?

Luckily, winds are worse in New Mexico on the plains than in the mountains. But how about in the high desert? Because of the wide temperature variations – warmer days and cool evenings, desert air can be a little unstable. Anyone driving through rural Arizona and New Mexico is likely to see a few wind farms, a smart renewable energy choice for our state.

Windy air contributes to evaporation. As wind speed increases, plants react by upping their rate of transpiration, which is the plant’s loss of water as it’s absorbed through the roots, up to the leaves, and out the leaves as it evaporates. More than 90 percent of the water a plant absorbs is lost by transpiration. It’s inevitable with photosynthesis.

wind spinner in New Mexico garden
This wind spinner is calm today, but we had to permanently shorten the stake to stabilize it because it almost took off in flight or bent in half a few times this spring.

It’s easy to imagine that wind makes plants drier, as anyone who lives in a windy, arid climate knows when they constantly apply lotion to their skin. Science also explains the effect of wind on evaporation. First, it’s helpful to recognize that plant evaporation increases humidity to an extent. If you’ve ever been in a greenhouse or a tropical plant exhibit, you can feel the humidity as you walk inside.

When the water that travels through a plant reaches a plant’s leaves, it seeps through tiny pores on the underside of the leaves. By hanging out there, the vapor adds to the relative humidity of the air close to the leaf. Kick up the wind, and the leaf moves around, so that it spends time in drier air. Of course, if the air outside is humid that day, the wind won’t have as much effect. But how often is it humid around here? Anyway, high wind, combined with low overall humidity and full sun, can rapidly dry out your vegetables or ornamentals before you know it!

xeric wild rose
No wonder so many xeric plants have smaller leaves. Less transpiration occurs and more energy can go into the plant’s health and blooms. I love this Wood’s rose (Rosa woodsii)., also called a wild rose or Fendler’s rose.

Native Plants Adapt

Native plants adapt to soil and climate. So what about succulents? I won’t get into a long biological discussion, mostly because I am not a biologist or botanist. But one reason that succulents often have small leaves and large stems is to reduce transpiration so they can survive in dry, hot deserts. Others, like the aloes, have a different type of epidermal layer that doesn’t allow for rapid transpiration. It’s amazing how well plants adapt to their environments; if only I could adapt to winter…

Aloe leaves
These aloes have larger leaves, but they lose less water to evaporation than do typical plants.

If you have a non-native that takes slightly more water, remember what I said earlier about protection. Place the higher water user where it’s more protected from wind. If it can take some shade, at least in the hottest afternoon sun of summer, that will help too. Check out past posts for more water-saving tips. And these tips apply to growing vegetables and other edibles in wind and high altitude. The good news for us is that our winds calm slightly by summer.

Use Mulch To Conserve Water In Your Garden

When you put away a gallon of paint or the leftovers from dinner, you always cover the container. By sealing the paint can or plastic storage container, you lock in moisture. It keeps your paint from drying out. Same goes for your spaghetti with pesto (not to mention sealing in the “aroma”…).

Your plant roots can benefit from their own covers, and that’s where mulch enters the picture. Much like the top layer of paint in a can, air dries out the soil at ground level. Add wind and heat, and water can evaporate quickly from desert gardens in particular. Mulch helps insulate the soil to keep it cool and minimize evaporation. The layer of mulch also protects the area around the plant’s roots from the forces of nature. In other words, when the rain comes, it won’t pound the ground, eroding dirt away. Instead, it hits the layer of mulch, then trickles down to the ground. Use an organic mulch and each time it rains or you irrigate, the water carries some nutrients for the roots to take into the plant as well. Need more reasons? Mulching cuts down on weeds, and weeds compete with your plants for water. Plus, they are such a pain.

shredded bark mulch
Mulch cools and moistens barberry, photinia and ice plants in Albuquerque, N.M., bed.

To truly insulate and cool plants takes about three to four inches of mulch material. It depends on the type of material you want to use. If the mulch is fine, such as bark cut to smaller than an inch in size, go only about an inch or two deep. The same goes for grass clippings. Your roots also need some air to thrive! So be sure to avoid use of landscape plastic under your mulch in any areas where you will plant. The plastic is great in walkways, but not in your beds or under trees.

When piling mulch around plant or tree roots, cover the entire area to which the roots extend. For trees, you need to go out about as far as the tree’s canopy. And don’t place the mulch all the way up against the trunk of the tree or stem of the plant. Leave a small opening close to the plant.

mulch around tree
Water is less of a concern in this Northeastern garden/iris farm. But I would worry about how closely the mulch comes to this tree trunk.

Mulches also can look attractive and add to landscape design. Be careful about mulches you choose and social media posts with ideas for repurposing materials as mulches. Some are harmful if applied directly to vegetables and other plants or introduce weeds to your garden. And if your helpful neighbor offers fresh chicken or horse manure, remember that you shouldn’t apply it hot. Add it to your compost, and eventually to the vegetable garden.

gravel around yucca
In the desert of Tucson, the rock around this xeric yucca is probably more for looks, erosion control and night-time heat retention.

We’ll break down some types of mulch in a future post, but if in doubt, check with your local extension office or master gardeners.

Earth Day 2015 – We Can All Lead the Way on Water Conservation

Today is Earth Day, and it causes me to pause and reflect on my concerns about our planet. I live in an area of the U.S. that historically has been heavily affected by drought. We might be doing better this week than many parts of the West, but that hasn’t always been the case. And it doesn’t relieve the groundwater situation.

Earth Day 2015
Earth Day 2015. This year’s campaign is about taking the lead.

I also live in an area where people, for the most part, deny climate change. I avoid political discussions, but I love science. Here are a few facts from NASA:

  • The global temperature is up 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit since 1980.
  • Many argue that temperature relates just to regular shifts, and not permanent change, so how about this one: The Arctic ice minimum is declining 13.3 percent each decade.
  • Melting Arctic and land ice have led to the sea level rising 3.19 mm per year.
  • In addition, carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are up 400.06 parts per million, and the forest cover is down.
Ruidoso burn scar
Burn scar from massive fire in Ruidoso area a few years ago. This is from the top of the Apache Ski area.

I struggled years ago to explain the phenomenon to a neighbor who used the classic line “So much for global warming” every time we received a late snow or had cool temps on a spring day. The science is complex, but in my mind, it’s intuitive. Less ice at the surface adds to the vicious circle of warming and less melt on land where it’s needed. More water in the ocean increases sea levels, like a bathtub running over. Add cold water to the mix, along with air and water that are warmer because of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and you’re going to affect ocean weather patterns.

thermal-imagery-seas
The swirling of sea surface waters is shown in this thermal infrared image from the Suomi NPP spacecraft on April 12, 2015 in an area just southeast of Cape Cod, Mass. The VIIRS sensors can detect slight differences in temperature at a resolution of 375 meters per pixel, and here they are colored – blue for cold, and red for warm. The warm waters of the Gulf Stream meet and mix with the much cooler surface waters from the North Atlantic. An incredibly tight gradient between these two masses of water is especially evident on the left side of the image, where the area of white is very fine between cool and warm. These boundaries are often ecological hot spots, especially for fisheries. Image courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association.

 

I do know that the first quarter of this year was the warmest on record for Earth. I’ll leave the discussions to the experts, though. For now, I know I could do more individually. I could cut down on some waste and recycle more. We’re already trying to grow more of our own food because it’s hard to get fresh vegetables locally. We have a passive solar home, but we could do more to cut down on electricity and natural gas use.

hike along Rio Bonito
My family on a hike we took along the Rio Bonito near Ruidoso one August.

And water, that precious resource. I’ll increase my efforts there as well, trying to capture more rain water during monsoon season. And I’ll try harder inside the house to decrease water use, because every drop adds up. Finally, I’ll continue to research and offer as many practical ideas as I can on saving water in your landscape.

Smart Xeric Strategy: Grow Edible Plants

It’s a trend that was a long time in coming, but edible landscaping is here to stay, and it can be a great xeric landscaping strategy. More than 80 percent of Americans say they have grown edibles, but nearly one-fourth are concerned about irrigation, so incorporating edibles into the garden landscape just makes sense!

I plan to increase some of the space in our rock garden devoted to edibles this year. We already have some great xeric herbs and I love the blooms of our Western sand cherry, which I hope will bear fruit this year. We also get a few rose hips from our native (Fendler) roses.

Apple tree and red bud in full bloom
The red bud looks edible, but only at the bird feeder! The rose bush on the left leaves hips in the late fall. And if that apple tree by the river makes as many apples as it has blooms, we’ll be heading to the farmers’ market!

Use space and save money

Adding a few edibles means we use some of the space and relatively good soil that’s near our kitchen and outdoor dining spaces for a few more herbs and vegetables. I’ll supplement our fenced vegetable garden and try to select critter-proof plants or hope the area is close enough to our patio to shy them away.

Like me, you might want to grow your own edibles for freshness and cost savings. In particular, herbs are much less expensive when grown from seed or cuttings than when you buy them in a store. I’ve used fresh and dried ones from our rock garden all year long. But so many edible plants also add visual interest. I don’t have to tell you how gorgeous lavender can get. And if not cut, rosemary and sage also produce lavender-colored blooms.

Grow xeric herbs

Then, there is the scent. I can hardly walk by thyme or lavender without rubbing my fingers on the leaves. Here’s a list of low-water herbs to add to your garden landscape:

Sage, thyme, rosemary, and lavender (which can be used to flavor dishes or for many aromatic uses). Basil uses a little more water, but recovers well if neglected, as long as you keep it in well-draining soil. Oregano also needs only occasional watering, and though dill can be particular about soil, it also does well with little water. Read more about low-water herbs in my March post.

Add edible shade trees

If you’re looking for a shade tree, why not plant a fruit or nut tree that is native to your region? Instead of watering for the sake of leaves and summer shade, you can water for some juicy apples or peaches.

Chinese apricot tree for edible shade
No shade needed on this spring day, but in summer, we rest from outdoor chores under this established Chinese apricot tree. It was loaded with fruit about three years ago.

We just ordered a few bare-root trees from the Upper Hondo Soil and Water Conservation District. We’ve already planted a pinon tree. Sure, it will be a long time until it rewards us with pine nuts, and we’ll probably always fight the wildlife for them, but it’s a fast-growing native tree in New Mexico and I’m happy to try for a few delicious nuts to add to some basil for pesto! On the way soon are a serviceberry and cherry. The serviceberry is sure to feed the birds, if not us. And our established currant is in full bloom.

currant bush
This low-water currant provides year-round color and edible berries for wildlife and humans.

Consider interspersing a few edibles into your garden landscape and start small. For example, fill containers with edible flowers. Artichokes add interest to the garden;  just be sure to leave those guys plenty of room. If a few of the edibles you choose take a little more water than typical for xeric plants, consider this: Farmers use even more to irrigate their crops and you use no carbon footprint to drive to the store and buy greens when you grow your own in containers or a raised bed in your own garden. Water as much as possible from a rain barrel and feel even better about your edibles!

nasturtium in old washer
Why not fill an empty container (even a salvaged washer) with edible flowers? Nasturtium look pretty in the landscape and on salads.

Also, be sure to consider where you place your edibles. Spinach and lettuce have shallow roots and need cooler, shadier conditions. But avoid adding a crop of edibles under the canopy of a tree, where they’ll compete with the tree’s roots for water. I plan to use an area of our rock garden area to grow more peppers this year, and our southern-facing rock wall serves as a perfect microclimate to add some extra warmth for tomatoes and peppers.

planting edibles in xeric gardens
We recently weeded, turned the dirt, and added mushroom compost to the rock garden soil to prep it for some edibles as soon as frost danger passes.

Low-water Use Tips To Meet Restrictions and Good Water Sense

We spend a lot of time talking about xeric plants, and recently posted some tips on low-water use for gardeners. California has implemented emergency regulations to conserve water during their drought, and the ones related to landscaping are the sort of common sense practices that xeric-minded organizations and gardeners have always touted:

  • Avoid runoff when irrigating.
  • Don’t irrigate during or 48 hours after measurable precipitation.

This post goes into more details on the restrictions, which, along with scheduled days or times of watering, are pretty common municipal regulations in drought-stricken areas.

Avoid runoff when irrigating

Runoff obviously can come from too much water. Of course, good planning of landscape, plant selection and irrigation choices upfront can prevent runoff. Correct an existing problem by first checking the area after the system runs. If you normally water while at work, do a manual run so you can test your system on the weekend. If you have runoff, study where flow occurs. If it’s down a slope, consider terracing the lawn area or welling around the tree or shrubs that you’re watering. You can also cut watering time, of course. If you’re worried about one tree or ornamental that needs more water, cut the irrigation system watering time and supplement the tree’s water every once in a while with a hose or bucket. Don’t waste all of that water irrigating concrete or pavement, and possibly weeds, just to keep one plant healthy. For a small lawn or several plants on a drip system, you can decrease watering time and increase frequency if necessary.

terraced lawn to prevent sprinkler runoff
This Albuquerque lawn has some bermuda grass, but notice the terrace to avoid runoff. Also, note the exposed drip lines being reset in the xeric garden area on lower right.

The runoff might be from a misdirected, leaky, plugged or defective head or emitter. It’s easy to turn and redirect the head so the water goes where it should. A small leak in the system can waste hundreds of gallons of water. Plugged sprinkler heads are a common cause of pooled or misdirected water. Running a stiff wire, such as a straightened paper clip, through the emitter hole can clear some debris. If the entire head is full or dirt or grass, you can turn off your system, lift and unscrew the head, soak it and use a small wire brush to clean it. Then rinse it and screw it back on.

Avoid watering a wet lawn

This should be a no-brainer, but I already ranted in my previous post about neighbors who left their automatic sprinklers on no matter the weather. My best advice is to set automatic sprinklers to “manual” and water regularly but only as needed based on weather conditions. You can set a reminder on your smartphone or other device to jog your memory if that’s a concern. But it’s sometimes more difficult to remember to override the automatic setting on the sprinkler, especially if you’re not there to do it! Otherwise, pay attention to the weather forecast each evening and override the auto setting when rain is predicted the night before so you don’t have to add the task to your busy morning schedule. You can always water a little in early evening or the next morning if the forecast is off the mark.

Of course, if you’ve switched out some or all of your turf for a xeric landscape, at least you are using less water. It also means less need for an automatic system. Most xeric plants need such infrequent watering that you’re best served by a manual irrigation system or the totally manual system of carrying a water bucket from your rain barrel only to the plants that need a little more water — and only when they need it!

raised ornamental bed bubblers
We raised part of this bed and replaced spray heads with bubblers to conserve water.

Other water-saving tips

  • Water early in the morning, especially if you live in a hot climate. Your plants take up more water before the stressful heat of the day, and if you’re using spray irrigation, less water evaporates.
  • Use drip irrigation when possible instead of sprays and sprinklers, or at least keep the spray as low as possible. Spraying water can lead to some leaf diseases, and you want most of the water to go into the plant’s roots, not into the air.
  • Well around plants, especially new plants, any plant that needs more water than others, and anything planted on a slope to trap the water.
  • Choose xeric, low-water and native plants.
  • Use mulch as appropriate to help keep plants cool and roots damp.

    welled shrubs
    Wells around shrubs at Tucson area nonprofit

Of course, it never hurts to call in a professional landscaper or other pro to get some help with your irrigation system or to better plan your lawn and garden for low-water use. For example, avoiding steep slopes in your landscape (with terraces and other strategies) can prevent water runoff, and use of microclimates can increase plant viability while decreasing water needs.

Favorite Xeric Plant: Salvia

The salvias, or sages, include a huge and versatile group of shrubs, ornamentals and herbs. But I want to focus on a few of the xeric ornamentals. Last week, I wrote about a new royal red cultivar from Plant Select. My favorite salvias have deep, red or purple flower spikes and survive in the chilly nights and dry heat of the high desert and intermountain zones.

Most salvias attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. Several varieties are perennial in cooler zones, but others work only as annuals.

Purple salvia

Purple salvia cultivars (Salvia X sylvestris) include the popular “May night” meadow sage, which has been popular since 1956. I believe that’s the type of salvia that comes up in our garden each year. Other varieties such as a new sylvestris called “Little Night” are compact bloomers with the same striking indigo blue or violet color. They usually begin blooming in spring. Cutting the flower spikes close the ground as they begin to fade can stimulate a second round of blooms. Another purple salvia called West Texas cobalt sage (Salvia reptans) grows in zone 5 through 10 and is a native of the mountains of west Texas. Its foliage is different from many salvias, resembling grass more than leaves. By early fall, spikes of deep cobalt blue flowers open and attract hummingbirds. The plant has deep roots, making it a great choice for xeric gardens.

purple salvia in xeric garden

Salvia sylvestris, with deep purple blooms all summer, is a showy xeric plant.

Cherry sage

The cherry sage or autumn sage (Salvia gregii) is a popular small shrub in Texas and New Mexico. Although labeled semi-evergreen, most of the leaves drop off during winter in zones 6 and 7. It’s drought tolerant, but produces more flowers and a bushier leaf pattern with some moderate water. Keep this bush in filtered sun for best results, and prune dead flowers throughout its growing season to enjoy more cherry-red or pink- to coral-colored blooms. Planting several together can give you an attractive two-to-three foot hedge.

cherry red sage
Cherry or autumn sage makes a great low shrub in a low-water garden.

New white-blooming salvia

Finally, here’s another reason to love salvias! It’s a new compact salvia called Summer Jewel White (Salvia coccinea) with white blooms all summer that begin earlier than most white salvias. The plant is an All-America Selections 2015 winner based on its attraction of pollinators. I love contrasting white flowers with deep reds and purples. Summer Jewel White is an annual, but it’s low enough (about 10 to 24 inches high) to plant near a May night salvia or cherry sage without blocking the other plant’s blooms.

summer jewel white salvia
Salvia Summer Jewel White is a new annual. Image courtesy of the National Garden Bureau, Inc.

Another great feature of most perennial salvias is that you can easily propagate more by separating mature plants and replanting them. We’ve had a few volunteers crop up near our mature plant that we plan to move to another area of the garden.

Plant Select 2015 Plants for High-Altitude Gardens

I’ve written before about how the harsh environment of the high desert and foothills of the Rocky Mountains affects plants. But I’ve got good news! The brilliant folks at Plant Select,have announced their new plants and recommendations for 2015. Plant Select is a nonprofit source of plant selections that thrive in the High Plains and Intermountain regions and in a range of conditions, including low water. I’ve summarized a few of my favorites:

Coral baby penstemon (Penstemon x “Coral baby”). This is a new plant with upright spikes of coral-pink flowers that bloom from May through July in Zones 5 – 8. It takes moderate to dry water conditions once established and prefers sandy, well-drained soil. I love to see hummingbirds on penstenoms. Plant Select says Coral baby also attracts bees and butterflies. The plant was selected by breeder Kelly Grummons of Denver, who specializes in xeric plants.

 

Coral baby penstemon, a new introduction from Plant Select for 2015.
Plant Select’s 2015 Coral baby penstemon for Zones 5 to 8. Image courtesy of Pat Hayward, Plant Select.

WINDWALKER royal red salvia (Salvia darcyi x S. microphylla). I like that this hummingbird attracter is deer resistant. Plant Select says that it produces blood-red blooms from June through October in Zones 5 to 9. Cutting the salvia back in early summer can reduce its height (which can reach up to 58 inches). WINDWALKER salvia likes full sun and is moderate to xeric in water needs. It’s also from Kelly Grummons of Denver.

Plant Select's new WINDWALKER Royal red salvia is a moderate to xeric beauty.
Plant Select’s WINDWALKER Royal red salvia, a new plant for 2015 that produces blood-red blooms all summer.

WINDWALKER big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii “P002S” grass. This new introduction from Plant Select for 2015. Bluestem grass is one of the most beautiful ornamental grasses, and grasses can make a great statement in a xeric landscape. I especially love them near walkways or up against rocks. The powdery blue foliage on the WINDWALKER big bluestem can grow up to 6 feet tall in Zones 5 to 8. We left our bluestem through fall and enjoyed the dried foliage in the winter wind, then cut it back to the ground in early spring. It grew back, but was not as hardy the next year. This variety was selected by Sunscapes Nursery, and should reward with purple plumes in fall. It should get by with moderate water or dry conditions.

Windwalker big bluestem from Plant Select, a new grass for 2015 that's perfect for a xeric garden.
Plant Select’s new introduction WINDWALKER big bluestem grass is a perfect choice for a breezy xeric garden. Image courtesy of Scott Skogerboe and Plant Select.

Engelmann’s daisy (Engelmannia peristenia). This is one of several recommended plants from Plant Select for 2015. Because it’s native, it should adapt to high desert climates and water conditions. These grow wild at our place and when we head out to mow down weeds, we try to mow around them. They grow about 2 feet tall and are filled with yellow daisy blooms in late summer that attract pollinators. In the garden, plant them in part shade to full sun in Zones 5 through 10.

Engelmann's daisy, a native wildflower of the Southern Great Plains, is among the 2015  Plant Select recommendations. Image courtesy of Pat Hayward and Plant Select.
Engelmann’s daisy, one of Plant Select’s recommended plants for 2015 because of its adaptability to all sorts of conditions.

Visit Plant Select to learn more about their selection process and 2015 recommendations. I’ll probably include a few more in future posts. And if you live in the high desert or intermountain West, ask your local nursery if they stock any of the Plant Select recommendations.

Water-Wise Gardening Tips

It’s dry out there. We had pretty good moisture over the winter months, but the early spring has been unseasonably warm (OK!) and dry. We’ve come to expect that in New Mexico, and a few days ago, I wrote about the wildfire danger. Today, let’s review a few tips for water-wise spring landscaping that help homeowners here and just about anywhere in the country where drought can be an issue.

  • Set out your rainwater harvesting system. If you live in a climate zone that’s warm enough to leave rain barrels out all winter or have underground cisterns, your system has been efficiently gathering water all winter. In other climates, rain barrels can freeze in winter. Ours are on the south side of the house and should be past danger of long and hard freeze. Now, all we need is rain.
rain barrel in New Mexico
A simple rain harvesting system that came as a kit. All we had to do was shorten our downspout.
  • Update your irrigation system to a low-volume method. The most practical and water-efficient way to hydrate ornamentals is with drip irrigation. When you use spray heads, water evaporates into the air. It also hits leaves and nearby plants. The spray can cause leaf disease in some plants, plus it’s more efficient to soak roots deeply than to water the entire plant.
  • As you plan your irrigation, or check out your current system this spring, make sure to adjust the water amount for the plants or areas where you have bubblers. For example, succulents and many xeric plants need no water at all once established, unless you’re in an extreme drought. You can cap those bubblers off. Too much water can actually harm some xeric plants. Use drips at the base of low- and medium-water flowers and groundcovers. Increase the flow rate for larger shrubs and trees, and add a few extra emitters around trees, especially while they’re becoming established. Remember that tree roots grow out, just like the canopy.
drip system for xeric gardening
A drip system irrigates rosemary, yucca and other plants in this xeric garden.
  • Water in the morning to get your plants through the heat of the day, and when less evaporation occurs.
  • Use raised beds. Raised beds and containers concentrate water, so if you want a few herbs or vegetables or some medium- to high-water ornamentals, confine them to an area that takes a little more water than the others. If you place the raised bed near your drip system, you can add it to the mix and adjust the flow on your emitter if necessary. Just remember, some containers, such as clay pots, dry out more quickly, even though they use less water each time. It’s like having a smaller tank on a fuel-efficient car. It’s not necessarily using more gas, just needing more frequent refilling.
  • When adding plants to your garden, build a small well around them to hold water. This helps the plant soak up the irrigation and keeps water from running down and off the plant, wasting your precious resource.
well at base of tree
This well helps hold water until this small tree is established, especially since it’s on a slope.
  • Use mulch when possible to help retain water and keep roots cool during the heat of the summer.

Finally, automatic irrigation is most efficient, and the consistent, timed watering is best for plants and lawns. But override it whenever you can after a good rain. I used to bemoan the waste when my neighbor’s sprinklers would come on as scheduled while their lawn already glistened with rainwater.

deer in xeric garden
Most of the plants in our xeric rock garden receive no irrigation, just supplemental watering to establish new plants or an occasional drink during drought.

How To Read Plant Label Codes for Watering Needs

Plant tags, labels and catalogs are much more attractive if they use icons instead of text instructions. Much like infographics, it’s a newer direction in communication. I see the good side of it, especially for people who have low literacy or shop with small children and don’t have time to turn the tag around for more information. I could say the drawback is that the more we put in symbols, the less we need writers, but that’s not a rant for this blog post.

As far as I know, water symbols are not standardized. If I’m wrong, I would love to be corrected. I think a standard nomenclature and symbol system for plant watering would be a great service to gardeners.

plant-catalogs-labels
Catalogs, seed packets and plant labels use a variety of methods to give us clues about a plant’s water needs.

Most water requirements are represented by a water droplet symbol that’s empty, partially filled or completely filled. My summary of similar legends, like the one used by the Albuquerque/Bernalillo County Water Authority, provides the following clues to irrigation:

Empty drop: A plant that requires only rainwater or no supplemental watering once established. So be sure to give a new or transplanted tree or bush extra water until it appears healthy. This can be up to a year for trees and some bushes. After that, there’s no need to irrigate the low-water plant at all. Half-filled drop: This is a medium-water plant. It will always need some supplemental water, depending on what Mother Nature delivers. Most medium-water plants need supplemental water once or twice a month during the hottest days of summer.

seed-packet-water-drop
This seed packet shows the moderate water needs of a sunflower.

Full drop: I am not familiar with these plants. Seriously, they usually aren’t going to make it in places that deliver little rainfall, and if they do, it’s not water-wise gardening. But they often can survive in the right climates and conditions, maybe in a welled spot or container, or where there’s run-off from a streambed. Of course, if you live in a tropical area, that’s just not fair. There are additional variations on these labels, like partially filled drops. I’ve also seen use of watering pails as symbols. Most add text alongside the icons, but if in doubt, ask for help from the nursery staff or a local master gardener.

portulaca-bloom
And because I have to include a pretty flower picture, here’s a portulaca bloom. I love these low-water heat lovers.

No matter what the label shows, circumstances can affect water needs, so don’t take your water icon at face value! Aside from plant establishment, wind and unexpected heat waves can dry plants out. Summer monsoons can nearly drown our drought-resistant plants! And welling and mulching around plants helps them retain water, maybe helping you push a half-filled drop to a quarter-filled one…