Photo Essay: A Little Spring Green for St. Patrick’s Day

Spring has come early to New Mexico this year. We’re been breaking records for high temperatures. That’s been so nice and has really improved my mood. I’ll even consider it lucky, since we have lots to accomplish before summer.

Of course, our average last frost is around May 10, and April 15 in Albuquerque. So I fear all of the pretty flowers on the fruit trees will freeze at the worst possible time. Or that my impatience with cleaning up and lightly pruning xeric perennials will backfire. I choose to remain optimistic.

Enjoy these green (and a few other colors) early spring finds. Just click on any thumbnail to start the slide show.

Plant Select’s Top High Plains and Intermountain Plants

Each year various societies present plant awards, but those of us who garden in the West and Southwest await the group of Plant Select top performers. Plant Select, which is a nonprofit joint effort of Colorado State University in Ft. Collins, the Denver Botanic Gardens and professional horticulturalists, lists five top performers at various elevations.

blonde ambition grama
Blonde Ambition ornamental grama grass tops the 2016 Plant Select list. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

First, a word about why the work of Plant Select and other regional groups is so important. As I said, there are plenty of awards and lots of information in the gardening world. But, for the most part, plants emphasized by magazines and bloggers are great for East Coast and Southeastern region gardeners. It’s different in the high plains and intermountain areas of the country, where altitude, wind, and heat and cold extremes (in a single day and by season) affect plant health. And let’s not forget the water issue.

Plant Select evaluates plant performance in 53 locations throughout five Western states. Here are some of the 2016 Top Performers. See the entire list at Plant Select.

Grand Winner: Blonde Ambition Grama Grass

Blonde Ambition grama (Bouteloua gracilis ‘Blonde Ambition’ PP22,048) was introduced by New Mexico’s David Salman of High Country Gardens (American Meadows). Blue grama is a perfect low-water native grass grazed on by cattle on our Southwest ranches. Salman introduced the blonde ornamental variety in 2011, and this is the second year it has been Plant Select’s grand winner. Beginning in July, chartreuse blooms (seedheads) appear on upright stems, turning to the blonde color as they age. Watching those seedheads wave in winter winds provides xeric gardeners some year-round interest in their landscapes. Although Blonde Ambition can spread by seed, the seedlings are easily pulled up. The grass is hardy in zones 4 through 9 and deer resistant.

Blonde ambition seedheads
Blonde Ambition looks great in groups or as a single plant in the xeric garden. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

Top Performer at 3,000 to 5,500 Feet Elevation

Blonde Ambition also tops the list of lower elevation garden performers in the region. Number 2 on the list is a tree I’ve never grown, but want to learn more about since it also topped the list for gardens at my altitude (6,300 feet). The Hot Wings Tatarian maple (Acer tataricum ‘Gar ann’PP15,023) has bright red samaras, or fruit made of paper tissue, that bloom all summer. It’s also known for its reddish-purple fall color. The Tartarian maple is a relatively small tree, maturing to nearly 18 feet high and wide, and gets by with full sun and moderate to dry water needs. The only drawback for me is that it is not deer resistant, but I could see this gorgeous tree in any suburban garden from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation and in zones 4 through 10. We still might try it, but we’ll have to fence the tree until it reaches a mature height and keep lower limbs pruned.

top performer hot wings tartarian maple
The Hot Wings Tartarian maple has a gorgeous canopy, but I also love the trunk. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

Top Performer at 5,501 to 7,000 Feet elevation

Although the Hot Wings maple topped the list of performers at this elevation, I would like to give a nod to No. 2 on the list – Turkish veronica (Veronica liwanensis). Veronica is an excellent low-water groundcover. Veronica is evergreen, so it covers portions of our rock garden all year long. In summer, the groundcover blooms. Turkish veronica has cobalt blue flowers above waxy leaves. It only reaches about 2 inches in height, but can spread to 18 inches wide. Although veronica is a xeric plant, its leaves look better with a little extra water in the heat of summer. Turkish veronica is hardy in zones 3 through 10 and deer resistant. The top 5 Plant Select performers at this elevation also include Blonde Ambition, Apache plume and a catmint called Little Trudy (Nepeta ‘Psfike’ PP18,904).

turkish veronica plant select
Gardeners can prune Turkish veronica around rocks and paths. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

Top Performer in Gardens Higher than 7,000 Feet

Fernbush (Chamaebatiaria millefolium) topped the list for higher elevations. The Western native shrub is xeric once established and grows more upright with less water. It can look more formal with rounded pruning in early winter. Deadheading spent flowers also makes the plant look neater, and should be pleasant considering that the foliage has a honey-like scent. The sweet scent also deters deer. Fernbush can grow to nearly 5 feet high and wide; less water keeps it more compact. The plant thrives in full or partial sun in zones 4B through 8.

fernbush plant select
This fernbush provides year-round interest in a high-altitude garden. Photo courtesy of Plant Select.

These are only a few of the top performers in the Plant Select list. Check out their site for more on current and past top performers, new plant introductions for the region and where to buy plants for High Plains and Intermountain gardens.

10 Tips to Help Plants Survive Summer Heat

Even waterwise plants get stressed when exposed to high heat, dry air and wind. Many Southwestern plants can survive hot temperatures because they’re native to the low desert. But in some areas such as the mountains and high deserts, native plants are a little more winter hardy and a little less heat tolerant.

chocolate flower blooms
Chocolate flower (Berlandiera lyrata) blooms are perkiest in early morning but tend to wilt late in the day. No need to water or worry.

Even in the hottest Southwest and West climates, plants can need extra attention when temperatures soar. Here are 10 tips for helping plants survive the heat of summer.

Tip No. 1. Use drip irrigation.

You save water because it can’t evaporate as rapidly as it can if in the air, and the water seeps slowly down to the roots of a plant. This helps cool roots as well as hydrate them.

drip irrigation and straw on cucumber seedling
Drip irrigation is the only way to go for water savings and for keeping plants hydrated on hot days.

Tip No. 2. Use mulch.

Something as simple as straw spread out on the dirt helps keep air from rapidly evaporating water, but still allows oxygen to reach soil and roots. Piling the straw or other organic mulch two to three inches high helps even more.

straw mulch container tomato
Happy new tomato fruit with straw mulch in a container.

Tip No. 3. Try to get your plants established before summer heat ramps up.

Even heat-loving plants can wilt when temperatures soar. Still, recognize that wilting from sun can be temporary. The bigger the plant’s leaves, the more quickly the plant transpirates, which is the process of water evaporation through leaves. That’s why many succulents and xeric plants have small foliage. So don’t panic, but don’t completely discount it. Increase drip time on hot and windy days.

Tip No. 4. Water in the morning if at all possible.

This is a great water-saving strategy and helps prevent heat stress to plants. If the roots already have access to water, they can begin sending the water up through stems and leaves to keep the plant nourished. For most plants, regular, but spaced, deep watering always beats out frequent light watering (which leaves moisture close to the surface and can restrict root growth).

Tip No. 5. Check on your plants.

If you can’t check them during the day, do so as soon as you get home. It’s OK to water plants lightly in late afternoon to help cool them down.

xeric garden summer heat
Walking around your garden helps you spot heat stress and pest damage.

Tip No. 6. Use one plant as a benchmark.

For example, zucchini leaves are large, and if they’re wilting, you can prevent heat or drought damage to other plants nearby with a cool drink of water or some shade.

Tip No. 7. Shade plants.

New or damaged plants might need temporary shade to build up resistance to heat. Direct sun can burn leaves just like it can burn your skin. So make sure even an established plant is in the right location for sun and summer exposure and if not, try temporary shade.

cloth shade for plants.
It’s not pretty, but it’s clever. Tim built this removable shade out of landscape fabric, PVC and conduit.

Tip No. 8. Use containers.

Containers offer you the most opportunity to shade plants on hot days. Although soil in containers warms faster, containers also can cool more quickly. Most of all, it’s easy to move all but the largest into shade temporarily. You can mulch the top of the soil in a container, too.

containers on patio
Got containers? If you see a plant might be getting too hot, move it into afternoon shade. The white bucket in one container helped shade a new cherry tomato from sun and wind.

Tip No. 9. Avoid fertilizing plants during the heat of the day.

Plants should be perky and healthy before soaking up fertilizer. And the fertilizer needs to mix with plenty of water. It’s best to do this task before mid-day heat kicks in.

Tip No. 10. Control weeds.

Ha, there’s an impossible goal around here. And I know there are people who embrace weeds. I tolerate them only because I can’t keep up. But we’re really vigilant about keeping weeds off of or out from under plants. That’s especially true in the vegetable garden. Mulching can help control weeds.

field bindweed
Bindweed wraps around the base and stems of plants, weakening them. All weeds compete with garden plants for water.

Bonus tip.

Finally, if you keep potted plants, including cacti, inside during the winter, you need to protect them as they adapt to being outside. That’s true even for sun lovers. Harden the plant off if you can. If the plant is too heavy to bring in and out all day (or you have 30 of them, like we do), at least start it outside on a cooler, cloudier day.

Cacti under shade cloth
Succulents under the shade cloth. Yes, even some cacti can get too much sun. Containers allow these to survive winter inside and summer out in the heat.

Favorite Xeric Plant: Gaura

Some call it a butterfly plant. That’s because gaura has delicate, swirly flowers at the ends of long stalks that resemble butterflies. In fact, one variety of gaura (G. lindheimeri) is called ‘Whirling Butterflies.’ It has white flowers; ‘Siskiyou Pink’ blooms have an earthy pink tone. And in 2014, Gaura ‘Sparkle White’ was an All-America Selections National Winner.

Eight stamens jut out from the delicate flower up long stems. No wonder they bring butterflies to mind.
Typically, eight stamens jut out from the delicate flower up long stems. No wonder gauras bring butterflies to mind.

We’re fortunate enough to have wild or native gauras (G. coccinea) in our garden. They appear on their own in late spring and bloom as temperatures warm. They’re a little more like a weed, partly because of the places they tend to appear, and partly because they have a higher foliage-to-flower ratio. Still, I’ll take them, and so will the bees!

Wild gauras have less attractive shape and foliage, but they pop up from seed!
Wild gauras have less attractive shape and foliage, but they pop up from seed!

Drought tolerant gaura

Native gauras appear along roadsides and other dry areas. Many of ours come up through rocks in the garden wall. You don’t have to read a plant tag to know that a plant growing robustly in rocks needs little to no water. We’ve had some trouble with gaura from nurseries, and I believe the reason is that the soil we chose was compacted and holding too much water. Still, if you plant a new gaura, it will need watering until healthy and established. A drip system can give the plant a slow drink.

This flower is from a volunteer gaura.
This flower is from a volunteer gaura.

Easy care

Once you’ve chosen a sandy or loamy soil for your plant, place it where it can get full sun. By the second year, you won’t have to water except maybe once in spring or in severe drought. I really love to place the white flowers where I can see them from a window or patio. It’s also a great plant for breezy areas, holding up to wind, which causes the flowers to “dance.” Most gauras reach about 2.5 to 3 feet tall; the native  varieties are a little shorter.

gaura against rocks
Gauras look terrific in rock gardens and natural designs.

Cut G. lindheimeri back in early spring about halfway down the foliage to keep it bushy, full and not too leggy. I let the native gauras go to seed so they pop up again the next year. You can try the same with nursery varieties; the plant might self-sow if seedheads remain in autumn. The only pests that bother gauras are flea beetles and gardeners who overwater them, especially if the plants are in heavy soil.

Versatile plant

Gauras are hardy in zones 5 through 8. In colder zones, the plant can be damaged if wet when temperatures dip to more than -15 Fahrenheit. Gaura is considered a perennial in those zones, but tends not to last as long as some hardy perennials.

gaura and gaillardia
These volunteer, or native, gauras popped up with volunteer gaillardias. I love the combination.

The gaura can fit into nearly any landscape design. Even before blooming, its slightly mottled leaves provide garden interest. I love to see it against a slightly taller plant with larger, bolder flowers (which also can support the gaura stems as the plant matures). Gaura also is perfect near steps, garden paths and walls. Although gaura fits perfectly in a natural xeric design, its delicate flowers can work in a cottage garden plan, provided it’s not overwatered or has really good drainage. Native gaura foliage and shape is not as stunning, but nonetheless a fun re-seeder in a naturalized xeric garden.

 

 

Protecting New Plants From Wacky Weather

There’s nothing worse than watching a tomato grow from seed into a healthy start and then having it die soon after planting. Of course, paying for a plant at a nursery and then having to buy another is not much fun either.

Sometimes, gardeners can’t control everything, though we hate to admit that.  The new plant you purchased might have been doomed from the start, or an unpredicted hail storm hit while you were at work, beating all of the leaves off your tender start.

double rainbow ruidoso downs nm
Less than two weeks ago, it was rainy and in the 40s. Today, it will be in the mid- to high 80s with sustained winds of at least 25 mph. How do plants adapt?

Although I wish I could control the weather, I realize I can only manage a few steps to increase the chances of successful transplanting. Here are a few ideas:

  • Don’t assume the problem is water. I have been guilty of this, assuming if a plant wilts, it must need water. But that’s not always the case. The problem might be related to water, such as soil that doesn’t drain or drains too quickly. It also can be heat, changes in sun exposure, or wind. Some wilting is temporary.
geranium leaves damaged by wind and sun
These geraniums were ready to head back outside for summer, and we only want to move this pot twice a year. The wind (and likely hot sun) has damaged leaves, so as soon as it calms, I’ll trim off the damaged foliage. It needs a haircut anyway, so no need to panic!
  • Pay attention to the plant. Although overwatering can cause problems, underwatering is likely more dangerous, especially in dry climates of the Southwest. Water brings nutrients into a plant and helps it avoid or withstand weather damage or insect attacks. Walking by and touching a plant and looking for signs of insects can give you good clues about the plant’s health. Check for weeds under the plant. Field bindweed and morning glories wrap around plant stems and can damage them.
  • Harden off the start or new plant. It’s way fun to plant your new shrub as soon as you get home from the store. And planting right away can help a plant that’s rootbound in a plastic pot. Hurrah for plant rescue! However, if the new plant was in shade and sheltered from wind, give it a little time to adjust before you plop it down in a sunny, open location. Keeping the potted plant up against your house where it gets afternoon shade can help. When hardening off seedlings, choose a calm day and gradually increase the time the plants stay outside, especially in sun, for several days or weeks.
tomato and basil starts harden off
Hardening off starts on one of the few calm mornings we’ve had.
  • Choose the right location. Read the tags that accompany a new plant or the seed packet. It’s also good to double check with guides from local authors or master gardeners for more information on sun and watering. A plant can survive in mostly shade, but fail to bloom, for example. Microclimates can warm or chill plants.
yarrow and poppy
Yarrow in foreground and Oriental poppy in background. Both love heat, and the rocks help warm the poppy. BTW, the fencing around it is for protection from deer, not weather.
  • Protect the plant from weather elements. Oh, our poor tomatoes have had to endure full days of high winds for nearly a week, and today winds will be worse and humidity lower, to the point of fire weather warning. I start all tomatoes with a 5-gallon bucket around them. We simply saw out the bottom so we can set it into the ground to protect the plant, increase warmth around leaves and still have air circulation. The other day, the wind blew two of the buckets off the plants, right up by our house. Then, I got all excited on a calm day and put cages around the plants, which are growing above the top of the buckets. The wind beat them up, so I have buckets around three and a cage around the strongest tomato.
row cover and bucket protect tomato from cold
I was determined to start some tomatoes, and so far they are growing well. The container, bucket and row cover all increase warmth and the cover would have held up to small hail. It looks weird, but the plant will look gorgeous later!
  • Other ideas are to shade a plant during hot sun with permeable landscape fabric or by simply setting or tipping a woven lawn chair upside down over a small plant to block rays during peak heat. Of course, if you have wind, you will need to secure the chair with ground staples.
ground stakes
The staple on upper left is holding that poppy cage in place. These are handy garden tools!
  • Flexibility and patience help. Our weather went from too cool and damp to hot and windy. I haven’t been able to harden off the rest of my tomatoes and basil. And even though I’m anxious to get them in the ground, I have to wait until conditions are better. If you need to plant early or during a cool spell, use row cover or other methods to warm the plant, or place it in a container instead of the ground.
basil cover homemade
We used short pieces of rebar and stiff drip tubing to hold up my basil cover. I buried the cloth under dirt in the back. It waters with drip, so I only have to lift the cover to check or harvest. This helps protect the basil from cold, hail, wind, and insects.

Finally, sometimes you win, and sometimes you lose. And sometimes you just don’t know what happened. But don’t give up on gardening, or even on growing a particular plant you love if it’s hardy in or native to your zone. Have fun!

Get to Know Your Climate Zones Before Plant Shopping

When you shop for your lawn and garden, all nursery plants should have tags that include information about sun and water needs, and about the plant’s hardiness zone. The official zones for the United States are the USDA Plant Hardiness zones. Canada uses the Agriculture Canada Plant Hardiness Zones Map.

USDA zones consider cold hardiness, to help gardeners know what to grow on a mountain or in its foothills
This photo, taken in Ruidoso, N.M., shows a a few different climates and zones in one view
sunset zones
A ranch sunset in the eastern plains of New Mexico, less than 30 miles from the Texas border, and just over two hours from Ruidoso.

Improvements in Hardiness Zones

For the most part, the USDA system is based on the lowest average winter temperature. A few years ago, the USDA updated its zone map because of warming temperatures. The former map relied on data through 1986, and this one is more current. The USDA web site also has added an interactive map for users. You can enter your ZIP code and get the zone instead of guessing whether your town is light yellow or nearly light yellow on the map. So it’s now GIS-based and pretty precise; the USDA map ranges from zones 1 through 13, with 13 as the warmest zone.

USDA hardiness zones
The USDA hardiness zones, which you can search by ZIP code.

Canada’s map is based on climate data and information about plants in the area. The formula to determine zones include mean frost period length, snow depth, high temperatures and wind data, among other information. The zones range from 0 to 9, with zone 0 as the coldest. Canada’s site also features a terrific search that gives zone-specific information for plants.

Sunset Zones a Bonus for Western States

It’s important to know whether a tree, shrub or other perennial will survive your zone’s winter before you plan or purchase; the USDA map helps with gardeners’ decisions. Sunset (Sunset Western Garden Guides) takes the information a few steps further – by telling gardeners about a plant’s chances all year long. For example, we’re in USDA zone 6B, but so are parts of Virginia and other Atlantic areas, as well as parts of Washington and Oregon. Although El Nino has disrupted normal patters, it’s safe to say that plants get lots more rain in Washington and Virginia.

lily pond in Pasadena garden
Pasadena garden, complete with lily pond.

Sunset looks at distance from the equator to help calculate length and severity of winters. The zone map also separates areas with similar temperature ranges according to coastal location or elevation. At more than a mile high, the elevation matters. Our days might warm as much as a comparable location at 2,000 feet altitude, but our nights cool considerably more. Most of all, Sunset knows the western part of the country. Sunset has 24 zones for the American West, divided by geography and climate. Our small town isn’t notated on the map, so it’s a little tough to determine our exact zone. But Sunset places us in the high desert/intermountain region, and the information still is helpful.

Contrast the Pasadena landscape with this shot in Tucson, Ariz. They're less than eight hours, or 487 miles, apart.
Contrast the Pasadena landscape with this shot in Tucson, Ariz. They’re less than eight hours, or 487 miles, apart.

Interestingly, Sunset also provides zone information for the rest of the country. It would be well worth it for gardeners east of the Rocky Mountains to review the Sunset zones for information such as wind and climate extremes.

Gardeners can avoid confusion about zones in plant purchasing and care information by knowing both USDA and Sunset numbers for their locale. Typically, all plants except Sunset’s own will use the USDA zone on the tag.

zones help know what grows well.
Our tart cherry tree exploded with fruit last year, which required enough cool evenings in winter and no damage from a late frost.

Use Zone Data with Microclimates

If you’re still uncertain about zone, you can check with local Master Gardeners. Another reason to ask a seasoned gardener about climate and zone is microclimates. In many Western states, zone varies within a metropolitan area. Think of the areas above and below southern California’s thermal belts. The ocean has little to do with the climate in those distinct areas. In Albuquerque, temperature and wind can vary markedly from the foothills of the Sandia Mountains to the valley floors.

Knowing particulars for your area of a town or region helps, but you can take it a step further if you want to push the edges of a plant’s hardiness zone or care needs. If you’re half a zone colder than the plant’s care information recommends, plant it against a south-facing wall. Plants that need protection from heat can go on the northeast side of your home, where the house shades them on blazing afternoons.

Prickly pear cactus and penstemon before a strawbale wall in Albuquerque, N.M. Plenty warm!
Prickly pear cactus and penstemon before a strawbale wall in Albuquerque, N.M. Plenty warm!

And since we’re all about the water out here, microclimates help with water use as well. For example, I might be able to place a shrub that needs a little more water at the bottom of a hill, welling on the downside to catch some of the rainwater.

So remember to pay attention to zone, sun and water needs when buying plants, especially in chain stores, which might stock plants too far out of your zone to keep alive all year. Your plants will be healthier and you’ll save money and time.

New Mexico — One of the 50

As I long for spring to return so we can get back to our gardens, I begin to fantasize about living in Maui or Tucson, Ariz., or anyplace warmer. But today, I’m reflecting on the beautiful state in which we live. And I thought it was time to dispel a few myths about New Mexico, especially for people who live far from the state and have not (yet) visited.

angel fire ski resort
From the top of a ski run at Angel Fire Ski Resort in northern New Mexico, you can see all the way to Eagle Next Lake and the peaks near Taos.

First of all, New Mexico Is a State!

Nearly everyone in our state who travels, stays active in social media or makes online purchases has encountered the phenomenon. I’ve had questions about shipments being international, and New Mexico Magazine runs a terrific column featuring some of the stories from N.M. residents about this confusion.

I know we don’t have a large population, but it hurts to see a map with Arizona and Texas labeled and the empty space between (or the AZ label on our bootheel-shaped state). New Mexico became a state in January 1912. We were the 47th state to join the Union. According to the N.M. Genealogical Society, achieving statehood took some time “in part, by a general ignorance about the territory and suspicions toward its people.”

We still have cowboys here, but New Mexico offers much more.
We still have cowboys here, but New Mexico offers much more.

Some things haven’t changed, I guess. It is true that our state was once part of the Mexican Republic, but that only lasted about 25 years during the 1800s. Our state boasts more than “cowboys and Indians” for our history. Ancient history includes Folsom Man, Clovis Man and the Anasazi.

jemez
Gilman tunnels in the Jemez mountains were blasted out of rock in the 1920s to make way for a railroad used by logging companies.

It Snows in New Mexico

Maybe because of our close proximity to warm and sunny Mexico and the low deserts of Arizona, the perception of New Mexico as a hot, dry desert prevails. It’s partially correct – our climate is extremely dry, and it gets hot in many areas of the state in summer. Climate and gardening zone are affected by more than latitude. New Mexico is on the U.S. southern border, but the Rocky Mountains run through our state, as does the Continental Divide.

The Sacramento mountains from the top of Apache Ski Area in early summer.
The Sacramento mountains from the top of Apache Ski Area in early summer.

Albuquerque, our largest city, is at the same altitude as Denver. Our place, which I consider as intermountain or high desert, stands at 6,300 feet in altitude, and we’re surrounded by Lincoln National Forest. The Sacramento range is just southwest of us. Sierra Blanca, the peak that hosts Ruidoso’s Apache Ski Area is at just over 12,000 feet high.

This year, we got 18 inches of snow just from Winter Storm Goliath, and areas of the state measured their snow in feet. In northern New Mexico, the average annual snowfall has averaged more than 150 inches in Red River.  Even Albuquerque receives 9 to 10 inches of snow a year. Having said that, some southern areas of the state easily average more than 100 degrees in summer and have palm trees lining many streets.

The sun usually comes out and melts our snow quickly. It took longer to melt the snow from Goliath.
The sun usually comes out and melts our snow quickly. It took longer to melt the snow from Goliath.

Gardeners Grow More than Cacti

The desert assumption includes our native and garden plants. A major purpose of this blog is to show gardeners in Southwestern and Western states that native and xeric gardens can be gorgeous and save water, and that gardeners can grow other than succulents.

Our rain typically comes as monsoons beginning in early July.
Our rain typically comes as monsoons beginning in early July.

I’m not saying that N.M. gardeners avoid cacti and succulents when choosing plants for their garden or home, but so much more grows here. Depending on the region, gardeners hybrid and native roses, aspen trees, herbs and plenty of flowering perennial bushes and annual flowers. No area of our state escapes drought regularly and our average annual precipitation is lower than much of the country. So we just have to garden selectively and responsibly. Many species claimed as invasive in other areas don’t spread so rampantly here, and vice versa.

ajuga and columbine
Shade-loving ajuga and a columbine thrive on the north side of our home in zone 6B.

I’ve grown so accustomed to xeric and rock gardens that I’m a little turned off by lush, formal looks. Xeric gardening is most effective and pleasing when gardeners work with the natural terrain and climate. Use of native plants, rocks and succulents can combine for a perfect palette.

Southwest Gardening Can Be Challenging

Our gardens and natural areas look amazing throughout the year, but gardeners who transplant from warmer, and especially wetter, climates find themselves going through an adjustment period. It’s more likely many of our native and xeric plants will die from too much water than not enough. Once gardeners learn how to ensure the soil is prepped and that they water a little extra only until a plant gets established, they’re likely to have more success than failure in the garden.

Yarrow winters over here, and the hardy blanket flower (Gaillardia) spreads by seed.
Yarrow winters over here, and the wildflower Gaillardia (blanket flower) spreads by seed.

One of the reasons it’s particularly difficult to garden in parts of New Mexico is the weather extremes. In the high desert, days can become warm, and the sun intense. But at night, the desert cools considerably. Daily temperature extremes of 40-plus degrees from dawn to evening are not uncommon here. Add gusty dry winds to the mix and any plant but a native to the area might struggle a little. The state’s geographic diversity also means that conditions vary considerably around the state. USDA zones range from 4 to 8 around the state. Colorado’s zones are cooler than ours, and Arizona and West Texas are warmer on average.

Ranch land in southeastern N.M., about 30 miles from the Texas border. The landscape is flatter, but you can see forever.
Ranch land in southeastern N.M., about 30 miles from the Texas border. The landscape is flatter, but you can see forever.

New Mexico Is Enchanting

New Mexico’s state nickname is “Land of Enchantment” and it fits the bill. With mountains and plains, we have gorgeous views in most of the state. Sandia Crest in Albuquerque is so named because of the beautiful watermelon color the mountains take on at sunset. We have forests and rivers, along with dry river beds. It can green up here in summer, but if you’re used to all-green landscapes, you’ll either be disappointed or truly amazed.

Rio Ruidoso banks at the Hurd Ranch property in San Patricio, N.M.
Rio Ruidoso banks at the Hurd Ranch property in San Patricio, N.M.

Diversity of people and wildlife also make New Mexico an enchanting state. Every quadrant of the state has Native American reservations and history. More than 2 million residents were counted in the 2014 census, and nearly half are Hispanic or Latino.

Our mountains are home to black bears, deer and elk. And our plains are home to antelope and roadrunners. We’ve got ranches, oil fields and farms. Nut production is high here for some varieties. Dormant volcanoes, lava flows and white sands dot the landscape.

It's tough to beat our enchanting, colorful sunsets and sunrises.
It’s tough to beat our enchanting, colorful sunsets and sunrises.

New Mexico is far from perfect socioeconomically, but well worth the visit. You’re sure to be enchanted. See more about New Mexico on my Fun Stuff page, including a link to our Pinterest account, which includes boards about New Mexico and Ruidoso. And learn more about gardening here by searching posts or checking out the Resources page.

Five Favorite Cold-Hardy, Low-Water Perennials

With winter in full swing, I’m amazed at the hardiness of some of our low-water plants. Anyone who lives in a northern or high-altitude zone who’s planning to add or replace some plants this spring with low-water alternatives should feel plenty comfortable with the number and variety of choices. Planting perennials saves you money – and water. Xeric perennials only need a boost of water the first year or so, and then can often make it with no irrigation. Here are a few of my favorites by category:

purple iceplant low water cold hardy perennial
This purple iceplant had a few blooms into fall; we’ve had them covered with blooms in summer.

Ground Cover

The iceplant (Delosperma) is a sun-loving groundcover that spreads rapidly and rewards gardeners with bright pinkish-purple (D. cooperi) or yellow (D. congestum or D. nubigenum) flowers. We thought it would be too cold here in zone 6B, but our purple iceplant thrives on the northeast side of our home. It’s a stunner, especially in rock gardens, where it can cascade slightly over rocks or borders. It’s also an easy groundcover to transplant. Other low-water cold-hardy groundcovers are several sedums, such as Dragon’s blood (Sedum spurium), and low-growing sages (Artemesia filifolia or A. frigida).

cold-hardy low-water dragons blood sedum
Dragon’s blood sedum has such a rich, red color. It’s a cold-hardy perennial groundcover perfect for xeric rock gardens.

Flowering Perennial

Red hot pokers (Kniphofia uvaria) are workhorses in low-water, cold-hardy gardens. Also called torch lily, the plans resemble a lily in its foliage. But the tall, torch-shaped blooms with red and yellow tubular flowers can last for weeks. Hummingbirds visit the flowers, and birds often visit spent blooms. Meanwhile, the plants form clumps in the ground that spread. Many gardeners use them as fence borders, and they’re one of the easiest cold-hardy perennials to care for in a low-water garden. Other low-water, cold-hardy flowering perennials are Dusty Miller and Gayfeather, to name a few.

kniphofia red hot poke low water perennial cold hardy
Imagine a wall of red hot poker blooms filled with hummingbirds. And they spread, so you can add more or share them with your friends! Photo courtesy of Diana Reavis of Plant Select.

Deciduous Shrub

The Utah serviceberry (Amelachier utahensis), also called a shadberry, is a low-water shrub that drops its leaves in winter but only after turning several gorgeous colors and producing berries for birds and other wildlife. It is closely related to the Western serviceberry (A. alnefolia). It’s native to low-mountain or high-desert areas of Utah, New Mexico and along most of the Rocky Mountain region. We purchased a stock of bare-root serviceberries that we’re raising in a protected area near the river so they need less water while getting established. Other low-water deciduous shrubs cold-hardy in high deserts or intermountain regions are the Leadplant, Fernbush and Sumacs.

service berry fall color
This bare root serviceberry already has gorgeous fall color in its first season. As it grows, it also provides food and shelter for birds.

Evergreen Shrub

Mahogany (Cercocarpus) uses very little water and has an interesting, desert-like look in the landscape. The evergreen shrub can adapt to temperature extremes up to 100 degrees F, and is cold hardy to 20 degrees below or more, depending on the type. Curl-leaf mountain mahogany (C. ledifolius) can get large if left untrimmed, but the little-leaf variety only grows to about 8 feet tall. Both do best in full sun and with little water. Other cold-hardy evergreen shrubs that work well at high altitude are Damianita and Cotoneaster.

littlelead mahogany
Littleleaf mountain mahogany offers evergreen foliage and shelter for birds. This Cercoparpus intricatus is from Plant Select in Colorado, photo by Pat Hayward.

Tree

The alligator juniper (Juniperis deppeana) is one of few junipers that I really love. That’s because I’m allergic to juniper pollen, as are many people who must live around the plants in areas where the air is plenty dry. Junipers thrive in poor soil and low water conditions and they’re long-lasting evergreen trees and shrubs. The alligator juniper is named for its reptilian-like trunk, making it more interesting in the landscape. Many also have multiple trunks. Alligator junipers do well in elevations between 4,500 and 8,000 feet. Lots of other low-water trees fare well in cold climates, including the Netleaf Hackberry, Mexican Elder and Gray Oak.

alligator juniper
I love the bark of the alligator juniper tree.
junipe rberries
Birds love juniper berries. It looks like a few already munched on these.

 

Baby, It’s Cold Outside and Wildlife Gotta’ Eat

I’ve been working long hours this week wrapping up a project that’s due soon (cause writers gotta’ eat too). So I haven’t been able to research gardening topics for the blog. I’ve also had some trouble keeping my attention focused on my work task, mostly because birds and deer have been busy stocking up on food and it’s so fun to watch.

snow on rose hips
Snow on rose hips. Birds and other critters eat these in winter, and the birds congregate in our two native rose bushes.

Last week, I wrote about nurturing wildlife instead of flowers this time of year. And I have say it has paid off. Some of the grazing is natural. Deer and wild turkeys naturally roam here in winter, but I’ve never had so much fun with winter birds. We’ve got huge flocks that normally fly by now landing in trees and I have to stay really disciplined to keep from pulling out a book or bringing up my Cornell Merlin Bird ID app to identify them.

The apricot tree is up above the bath and feeder. We normally saw these flocks fly overhead, but yesterday, they circled and landed in the tree. There were 40 or so at once, and I believe most are Lazuli buntings.
The apricot tree is up above the bath and feeder. We normally saw these flocks fly overhead, but yesterday, they circled and landed in the tree. There were 40 or so at once, and I believe most are Lazuli buntings.

When I need to get up and stretch, I peek through the windows at the activity, watching the birds and deer and trying to get photos without disturbing them. I thought I’d share a few this week, then try to get my head back on gardening — and the holidays, of course — next week. I’ll also keep my eye out to get a photo of the latest spotting. I believe it’s a sharp-shinned hawk, who’s attracted not so much to our feeder, but to the small birds around it.

I'll get back to the birds, but check out this buck. He is solid! So gorgeous.
I’ll get back to the birds, but check out this buck. He is solid! So gorgeous.
One of the tiniest fawns I've seen around here came with the latest herd. This one is still fluffy, and not much taller than the bird bath!
One of the tiniest fawns I’ve seen around here has joined the growing herd. And that’s good, because our deer population was affected by a wildfire several years ago. This one is still fluffy, and not much taller than the bird bath!
I believe this is a dark-eyed junco, but am not certain. I call it Ambitious.
I believe this is a dark-eyed junco, but am not certain.I call it Ambitious.
And successful!
And successful!
The scrub jays chase away lots of other birds and each other. But I love how the couples stick together.
The scrub jays chase away lots of other birds and each other. But I love how the couples stick together.
Birds gotta' drink too. And bathe. It has gotten a little crowded at the bath.
Birds gotta’ drink too. And bathe. It has gotten a little crowded at the bath.
We're even getting action on the thistle sock.
We’re even getting action on the thistle sock.

Nurture Birds Instead of Flowers in Winter

Surely, one reason gardeners in cold climates get a little depressed in winter is that we can’t get outside as much. Another reason is that we aren’t growing and nurturing plants. At least I discovered that’s happening to me, because I’m kinda’ trying to grow birds instead.

bird on suet and nut feeder
This is one of my new obsessions. A Pyrrhuloxia, a cardinal-like bird who showed up just before Thanksgiving. The tuft on his head reminds me of Woody Woodpecker. He is so fun to watch! I hung this new feeder more for convenience than protection, but he checked it out the first day.

We’ve always had some birds in winter. Living in a semi-rural location bordered by a river and national forest brings some pretty interesting birds. For example, a solo sandhill crane flies east and west over the river each day, and sometimes lands behind our place. Only once have we seen two cranes.

This year, I have been spending lots of time birdwatching. OK, bird obsessing. Just switching to better bird food helped, and we saw several birds this year we’ve never seen before.A Northern Flicker decided to roost up under one of our beams. I know the bird naturally perches on the side of trees (or buildings apparently), but watching the poor thing huddle into a corner during 25-degree nights broke my heart.

northern flicker on house
I can’t get close to the skittish Northern Flicker. There are three of them on our property. This one claimed our bedroom patio.

I ordered a house specially designed for flickers from the National Wildlife Federation. Tim mounted it in the same corner. The first night, the bird perched near or on the house. By the second night, he checked in. And I check every night to make sure he returns. Just a little obsessive.

Northern flicker bird house
Here’s the Northern Flicker house from the National Wildlife Federation. It’s perfect. Tim mounted it tightly against the corner the flicker was sleeping in (and pecking at), and it took only one night until he checked it out and headed inside. He’s taken up permanent residence.
northern flicker near house
Told you I was obsessed. I spotted our buddy yesterday around lunch time again. You can see his house up to the right. Now that I have the house, I would like a telephoto lens for my Nikon, please?

Now, I’ve moved on to some new winter feeders and other ideas. And I’m having to force myself to pay attention to work during the day!

Leaving birds some shelter, food and water in winter is the right thing to do. And as I was writing this post, I found out that today is World Wildlife Conservation Day. Knowing my efforts give birds a boost in winter helps me justify the expenditure and time. Here are a few tips for keeping birds fed and watered so they can make it through cold and dry winter seasons:

  • In winter, birds need fat and energy to make it through the cold nights. Frankly, I have a feeling a few are regretting settling down in our community this year. Seriously, by going about 40 miles east or west, I imagine their nights would be 5 to 10 degrees warmer. Nuts, suet and fruit provide fat and energy, and black oil sunflower seeds are a year-round preference for many birds.
ice on bird feeder
It gets cold here! This was over Thanksgiving weekend. It took the birds a few hours to man up and hit the feeder.I’m not sure if any made their way into the birdhouse next door.
  • Quality of seed makes a difference. It’s not only better for the birds that stop by, but should bring more birds and more varieties of birds. When we have run out and had to buy seed at big-box stores, I’ve found way too many twigs among the seeds. Plus, much of the selection in inexpensive seed mixes gets cast aside and lands on the ground, making a big mess.
  • Buy the seeds with no hulls to avoid that big mess. The ladies at Wild Birds Unlimited in Albuquerque told me I’d get some different varieties by using hulled sunflower seeds instead of seeds with hulls, and they were right on! Some birds, such as dark-eyed juncos, can’t break open seed hulls. The seeds are well worth the money and actually last longer. So efficient!
bird feeder with sunflower seeds and pigeon guards
Here’s the ice-cold bird diner filled with sunflower seeds, no hulls included. Notice the pigeon guards, also from Wild Birds Unlimited, which work and were well worth the price.
  • Better-quality and no-hull seeds also help keep away nuisance birds. Sorry, but I can do without mourning doves, or as I call them – pigeons. I thought we got rid of them when we left the city. But apparently, they followed the U-Haul. One way to keep them off the feeder is with pigeon guards. With no hulls on the ground, they won’t even gather at the feeder area.
sign about doves
I knew I could taunt my husband with this some day. Unless an ornithologist corrects me, my research (and this wonderful sign from a Maui botanical garden) confirm it: Mourning doves are pigeons!
  • Winter suet attracts birds that don’t eat seed, such as jays, bluebirds, woodpeckers and nuthatches. It costs less than peanut butter, maybe even if you make your own feeders. But if you enjoy making feeders with kids or grandkids, having lots of choices and spots for birds is good for them and fun for you! Suet cakes can go in cage feeders, or more protective wooden ones. Suet also comes in logs, or if you have lots of time on your hands, you can walk out each morning and smear it on a tree.
  • I like to purchase nonmelting suet because some of our winter days get warm and spring can be whacky, with really cold days and nights that alternate with warm days.
  • Our finches tend to disappear in winter, but I left out a sock filled with niger, or thistle, seed that I had just filled before it turned cold. I’ve seen a few finches and sparrows on it.
  • Some articles suggest ground feeders, but I am too concerned about attracting critters (including my dogs) with the seeds to try that one. Next year, I would like to find a spot for a platform feeder, however. I guess some birds can eat while swinging around, but there are some that do better with nuts and fruit on a nice plate, such as cardinals and jays. I’m hoping they’ll try standing on top of my stackable feeder and pecking on some nuts and cranberries!
WIld Birds Unlimited Flying Start feeder
Our Pyrruloxia found the suet and nut feeder yesterday and tried a bite. He’s back in the garden this morning, distracting me while I try to write about him.

Finally, birds need water all year long, and it’s hard to come by anywhere that nights dip below freezing. It’s especially tough in places like New Mexico, where water is scarce as it is. Birds need drinking water and to splash around for feather maintenance (check out a bird pool party I filmed and placed on Instagram). Those feathers keep them insulated at night, and I want them to stay healthy. Our river is running full and fast, but I don’t think there are pools of water down there for small birds. Our bird bath has been a big hit, but it has frozen over every night for several weeks. I’m wasting water when I toss the frozen chunk, and I don’t like to waste water. Heated bird baths or electric or solar heaters to place in the bird bath are available now. I’ve asked for a solar heater for Christmas, so more on that later. If anybody wants to send me a free one to try, please feel free to do so. The birds and I would be so grateful!