The New Mexico state cookie is unique, crunchy, slightly sweet and uses an unusual herb. The biscochito (or bizcochito) is also easy to bake. What makes the biscochito different from a typical sugar cookie is incorporation of the herb anise, or aniseed, into the recipe.
I’ll admit to not favoring these cookies in the past only because I tend to shy from the rather strong flavor of anise, which resembles black licorice. But when I made my own, I found the recipe used just enough anise seed to give the cookies a hint of the herb without overpowering the buttery crunch or sweet and spicy taste of the cinnamon and sugar sprinkled on top.
Apparently, anise is used medicinally to help with upset stomachs, and as an expectorant. The plant (Pimpinella anisum) dates back thousands of years, and is native to Egypt and the Near East. Meditteranean plants typically do well in warm, dry climates. In fact, once seedlings are established, anise does best if the roots are allowed to dry between watering. The herb prefers sun, but only grows as an annual.
But back to the cookies, because right now, I’m all about the holidays. I’ll worry about my garden after I open some garden-themed gifts (hint, wink).
I don’t have my own biscochito recipe, but the one I use is from a Southwestern cookbook put out in the 1980s by the Junior League of Albuquerque called Simply Simpatico. It’s a great cookbook in general
Here’s a link to New Mexico Magazine’s recipe, although I used shortening instead of lard, no orange juice, and much less anise. Suffice it to say that if you are not fond of anise, or uncertain, go easy on it your first batch; I suggest a teaspoon of anise for each pound or stick of shortening. The other secret to making these cookies so good is the little bit of liquor. My recipe called for a sweet wine, but several use brandy instead.
The cookies should be a sort of cross between sugar cookies and shortbread, crumbly but crispy, with plenty of cinnamon and sugar on top.
Try this New Mexico favorite and be a hit at your family or office holiday party. Feliz Navidad from New Mexico!
I’ll use rosemary, one of my favorite low-water herbs, tomorrow when cooking our Thanksgiving turkey. I also wanted to incorporate it into our table arrangement. Earlier this month, I pinned some napkin holders made with rosemary sprigs. These were shaped into small circles and tied with floral wire, but I’m baking pies today and working a little bit, and they seemed beyond my skill (or patience) level.
Besides, I wanted to match the easy Thanksgiving centerpiece I made last week using lots of natural items from our yard, and I had pretty French-themed ribbon left over. So I sat down while the pecan pie was baking and made these in just a few minutes using rings we already had on hand, some napkins I bought recently, my leftover centerpiece ribbon and rosemary from our xeric garden.
First, I folded the napkin into a triangle, leaving just enough border on the underside to keep it from overlapping. If you have a large ring and a big table to set, you can fold it up less and make the napkin longer in the ring, adding proportionately longer ribbon and rosemary stalks.
Next, I put the napkin in the ring and then cut my ribbon to a length I liked, angling the cuts.
Finally, I added the rosemary stalks, also cutting them to a length that works, and playing with the “arrangement” a little to keep it from looking like lined-up soldiers. So easy!
I’ll put the fresh, unwashed rosemary in an open plastic bag and store it in a door of my refrigerator to keep it fresh until ready to set the table tomorrow. I guess I should go cut some more for the turkey in case it’s dark when I start cooking. Happy Thanksgiving!
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is the perfect low-water herb, and for that matter a perfect xeric ornamental. This year, we have two we keep as ornamentals and allow to bloom, and two for culinary use in containers, because I have a hoarder-like fear of running out of rosemary.
I understand that rosemary (and lavender, my other favorite low-water herb) can be somewhat difficult to grow in wetter climates. Well, let us desert dwellers have something, OK? We can’t in all good consciousness, or with much success, have tropical bloomers. And even having more than one hybrid rose seems wrong in areas with so little annual rainfall.
That’s exactly why rosemary does so well here. Once established, the plant thrives with less water. Depending on the variety, rosemary is hardy in zones 8 through 10. A variety called R. officinalis ‘Arp” is hardy to zone 6, however, and to zone 5 with some effort from the home gardener.
And I mean just a little effort. It’s generally easier to overwinter rosemary outside than indoors. Here are a few ways to push the zone a bit on rosemary, and my tip for keeping rosemary (and lavender) healthy through winter.
Plant your rosemary in full sun if possible, especially considering the sun’s winter path.
Use rocks or a wall to reflect heat in winter and help keep your rosemary warm as temperatures drop. You can also add some gravel mulch, as long as it doesn’t enclose the plant and retain water.
Use a container for rosemary and move the container to a protected, warm location (even though it’s still outdoors). I have one container on the southwest side of my patio for easy access and another against a southern wall that gets full sun all day in the winter.
Harvest! Harvest some rosemary for culinary use well before the first frost so that the plant is healthy and not blooming. Or if your plant is ornamental, a few blooms are fine, as long as you avoid pruning, and especially cutting into woody stems, anytime from four weeks before the first frost until early spring.
Water sparingly all year, but especially in winter when the plant dries more slowly. Wet feet cause root rot on rosemary and lavender plants.
And here’s my best tip for keeping rosemary happy and healthy in the winter! You know when you can’t wait to get outside and play after a snowfall? You take the kids, the dogs, the camera, your companion of choice…outside to enjoy the snow. Stop for a second and head straight for your rosemary in the garden or container. Carefully brush as much snow off of the plant as you can, especially over the center, main branches. We nearly lost a beautiful trailing rosemary bush several years ago before I knew how important it was to do this. The slow melting of snow amounts to setting your drip hose to run on the rosemary for days. It can destroy part or all of the plant.
This week, I used my bare hand (until I couldn’t feel my fingers) and then a soft broom to brush off all of my rosemary and lavender plants while the snow was still flaky. And yes, I pulled out my camera…
Arugula, with its bitter flavor, is considered a gourmet green by many and way too bitter by some (namely, my husband). But the green is one of my favorites, partly for the flavor and partly because it’s so easy to grow in containers or in our high desert garden. It also grows wild around our property!
Maybe arugula grows so well here in New Mexico because the plant is native to the Mediterranean. We don’t water the wild bunches that grow near our house or out in our orchard, and I have no idea how they came to be there. I just know that I kept getting a whiff of arugula when mowing in certain portions of the lawn. This year, conditions were such that I was able to spot the leaves and have a bite. By late summer, the yellow flowers followed and I have asked Tim to join me in not mowing a few bunches. I prefer to grow a milder variety for my salads, but I like having the wild plants around for their scent and appearance. And there are much worse plants spreading in our yard than these tasty greens!
The taste of arugula is strong, but I love to add it to spinach or mesclun mixes, or really any greens. In fact, traditional and tangy mesclun mixes usually include arugula. The green is particularly good with blue cheese dressing and can spice up a chicken or turkey sandwich!
Baby arugula is harvested when the leaves are younger, and offers a milder flavor than mature plants. Like most greens, arugula grows best in your garden in cooler spring or fall weather. You can typically harvest the greens within 4 weeks. And if you let it go to flower, the flavor might become too intense. Most garden varieties of arugula have edible, attractive white flowers with purple veining. The wild variety has yellow flowers.
Arugula also is called rocket or rocket salad. Some people use arugula more as an herb, sprinkling it sparingly on dishes for the peppery flavor. All fresh greens are healthy, but apparently arugula is packed with vitamins and antioxidants. To me, it’s packed with flavor and aroma!
Learn more about growing arugula in your garden in this article from Bonnie Plants, and check out Johnny’s Seeds for several varieties of wild arugula.
As the first frost threatens, I know it’s time to plan next year’s vegetable and herb garden. And I’ve got five reasons for new or seasoned gardeners to do the same. I might be a little late for some of these ideas; that’s what happens sometimes! But I’ll hold onto them for next year and share some I’ve learned – like use of cover crops (no. 4), something I want to learn more about for waterwise gardening.
1.Extend Your Season
First, can you extend the edible growing season with some fall or winter crops? If your zone allows, and it’s not too late already, then get started! We’ve planted some spinach, head lettuce and more carrots under a small hoop house with row cover fabric. Aside from many greens, favorite cool-season vegetables of gardeners are cabbage, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and several forms of broccoli. Several types of onion and garlic also grow in winter or are perennials in many zones. For example, chives are hardy to zone 3.
2. Add New Herbs
Speaking of perennials, maybe you want a perennial herb to thrive next year, and if you live in a zone that offers time to establish the plant before your fall freeze, head out and get it now! Low-water perennial herbs such as thyme, sage and rosemary survive down to at least zone 4 or 5. Or consider a window herb garden if you can’t let go of your favorite herb as the season ends, or want to try a few out for next summer! Here’s a great article on growing herbs indoors from Grow a Good Life.
3. Prep Soil and Plan
Clean up and prep soil; make a winter to-do list. Your soil is even more tired than you are after a season of growing food for you and your family. If you’re using the same space or turning part of your lawn into a new edible growing space, you’ll likely need to prep and enrich your soil. Pull up spent plants (or whatever takes up the space now) and be sure to discard any diseased plant materials. Add compost and let it cook. Here’s what we did early last spring (did I say I’m often late?), and an article from Mother Earth Living in 2012 that has some great ideas. This is also the time to make a to-do list of fall and winter projects, such as repairs to fences and drip lines or adding raised beds. Or, let’s say you want to expand because you’re nuts like us.
4. Plant a Cover Crop
If it’s still warm enough to sow cover crop seeds, this is one of the best strategies for enriching your soil, depending on your zone. Field peas, hairy vetch, many clovers, oats, rye and buckwheat are popular nutrient-restoring crops that can grow in winter in your edible garden. Plant cover crops with a few caveats, however: First, in drought-stricken and normally arid areas such as New Mexico, it only makes sense to plant cover crops that can grow in our typically dry climate. I’d like to investigate more about using water for something I will mow down and mulch into the ground after a few months vs. the benefits such as erosion control and soil improvement. And I hinted at another important caution: keep cover crops mowed or otherwise under control so they don’t go to seed, and be sure to cut them down in late winter to mulch into your garden. Otherwise, they can seed and spread, becoming invasive.
5. Note Ups and Downs
Finally, if you’re like me, you want to take notes about this year’s successes and “issues” now, because it was so hard to keep up with that during the peak of the working summer and harvest season. If you didn’t create a map or somehow record where you planted each crop, make a quick inventory before cleaning up so you can easily rotate next year’s planting. Think about how to improve your garden. I need to plant a few of my crops further apart (the reason for the expansion, or perhaps more accurately, the justification for the expansion!), and I need to time my succession planting a little further apart, just tweaking it enough to spread out the harvest, but still allow seeds to sow and fruit to grow within our normally short season. Something tells me that we won’t be so lucky with our frost date next year. We also want to invest in a better seed starting setup. I can’t wait!
Personal/bonus reason: Planning now might help overcome the impending sense of loss. Maybe it’s just me, but the unseasonably warm mid-October here that has me still harvesting a few tomatoes and cucumbers is dragging out the inevitable. When the hard freeze finally hits and I wander out to the garden the next morning to see what resembles a scene from a horror movie, I know I’ll be devastated and in need of a project. If planning while enjoying my last tomato with some fresh mozzarella cheese and basil gets me through, then so be it.
Several perennial herbs grow well in waterwise gardens, and are worth their ornamental value alone in xeric landscaping. My favorites are rosemary, thyme, sage and lavender. They’re also useful in the kitchen; I keep several rosemary plants close at hand in containers for fresh use. As long as I move them near the south wall of the house and brush off winter snow, they should make it through the winter in our zone (6B).
I prefer to dry thyme, and this year I’m drying sage for the first time – we have plenty of the plants for their violet flowers and pollinator value. Sage is the perfect companion for chicken, and I’d like to use more in recipes this winter.
Fall came on suddenly this year, and with it plenty of rainy days in a row. But I was able to head out yesterday between rains and take cuttings from our sage, thyme and a groundcover the nursery labeled oregano. I’m not sure yet of its culinary value, but I’m going to give it a try.
Fall actually is late for drying many herbs. The best time to harvest is as flowers bud, but just before they open. I missed that window of opportunity on my sage, but many of the thyme stalks still had not budded. And I’ve been harvesting basil all summer, preventing the plants from flowering.
The first step is to rinse the herbs and shake them loosely to remove excess water. You can dry herbs in a dehydrator, especially if you live in a humid climate or want to dry them quickly. The dehydrator thermostat should preheat to about 115 degrees before placing your herbs on trays in a single layer. For extremely humid climates, you might have to bump up the temperature to 125 degrees. Most herbs dry within 1 to 4 hours, so they should be checked often after an hour on the trays. Dehydration works best for tender-leaved herbs such as basil, oregano and mint.
For herbs such as sage, thyme, parsley, rosemary and summer savory, bunch drying works fine. I bundled each of the herbs with rubber bands, including the oregano, since we don’t have a dehydrator and I’m experimenting. My bundles are probably a little larger than recommended, but drying is typically so much easier in our area, where humidity normally is below 20 percent, or nonexistent.
You can dry herbs outdoors, but the sun can fade some of their color and flavor. They need to hang upside down in a dry spot with plenty of air circulation. Our shed fits the bill. It has a window on one side and slats on the other for a nice cross-breeze, but seldom to never gets wet inside.
Most herb bunches dry in a few days to a week. No matter the method you use, herbs are dry when the leaves crumble upon touching.
Other drying methods
Hang a bag loosely around or under tender herbs such as parsley to catch leaves as they dry, especially if using a garage or shed. Just be sure to keep it loose or cut plenty of holes in the side. The herbs won’t dry and can easily get moldy if you don’t let air circulate around them.
You can also dry tender herbs in the microwave because their moisture content is so low. It works well if you only want to put aside a small quantity. Rinse the stems, pat them dry, and pull off individual leaves. Air dry the leaves on paper towels, then lay them in a single layer on a paper towel that is placed on a microwave-safe plate or paper plate. Lay another paper towel on top. The amount of time required depends on your microwave, but should be no more than few minutes. I would recommend microwaving the first batch for about 40 seconds, then in 20 to 30 second increments so that you don’t overdo it.
Use the single-layer method for conventional oven drying by placing rinsed and dry leaves on a shallow cookie sheet and leaving them on low heat (about 180 degrees) in the oven for 2 to 4 hours. Just recognize that this method cooks out some of the flavor.
I’ve already made and frozen lots of pesto, so I decided to preserve the rest of my basil short term by placing the rinsed, clipped stems in a jar of cool water on a sunny windowsill. The basil will last at least as long as the remaining tomatoes from our garden. It’s amazing how fresh the leaves stay using this method!
Storing and using dried herbs
The best way to store dried herbs is in labeled, plastic containers. You can crumble the leaves before storing so they’re a better size for cooking. Remember that drying concentrates the herbs’ flavor and requires less quantity in recipes that call for fresh herbs.
When we purchased more than a dozen lavender plants last spring, we chose one that was touted as a superb culinary lavender (Lavandula angustiolia Buena Vista) and placed it in a container, the way I usually prefer to grow herbs. The stems are not as long, but the buds are supposed to have better flavor. I love having it near the patio table, where it still looks pretty and I can walk by and rub my fingers on the leaves or buds anytime to enjoy the scent.
I’ve seen plenty of recipes for lavender, usually in pastries. The only one I’ve tried so far (and loved!) is a lavender potato salad I’ve adapted from the book “Lavender: How to Grow and Use the Fragrant Herb” (Stackpole Books) by Ellen Spector Platt. By the way, this is our go-to source for growing and harvesting lavender. We combine some of the book’s information with local sources because of our differences in zone and water. Other than that, Ellen knows lavender! And the book has several recipes I plan to try.
To me, lavender is the most versatile of all herbs, right up there with its close relative, rosemary. If you don’t have one of the culinary varieties, it’s a great plant to add to your garden. But I made this recipe several times before we got this plant, and it tasted great! So try it with any lavender.
My basil isn’t perfect; I think I can blame mostly grasshoppers. But with all of the bugs around here and the cloudy, damp weather of late, it’s really a toss-up. I’ll stick with grasshoppers and snails for now, because I dislike them the most. Next year, I will definitely cover the basil plants with white row fabric.
Still, the plants grew, and some of the stalks were about to flower. Time to harvest! A neighbor, who shares a portion of her land to host a wonderful community garden, pointed us to some information on harvesting basil. I realized I have always been too shy about harvesting, taking too few leaves. Instead, it’s best to take the top few sets of leaves, above the second set of leaves from the soil. That assumes, of course, that the plant has at least three to five sets of leaves. If so, the sturdy topping should help the plant generate new growth.
I picked off and rinsed the leaves and dried them in a salad spinner and then on paper towels, choosing not to use some that were really chewed up. Then, I chilled them in the refrigerator until that evening. Even with some bug destruction, I got a good cup of basil leaves from one larger plant and two small ones. Then, I made pesto. And it was really easy. I modified a recipe I found online a few years ago and then used it right away to make dinner.
Take a look at the recipe below, and feel free to print or Pin it. And adjust it as necessary. I didn’t use a lot of garlic, so it’s all a matter of personal taste. After making the pesto, I whipped up a quick dinner of pasta with a chopped chicken breast and our first zucchini of the season, sautéing both in olive oil. I just added about a cup (measured raw) of cooked pasta to the skillet and a heaping tablespoon or so of pesto. The rest of the pesto went in the freezer!
Place washed and dried basil leaves, garlic and pine nuts in a food processor. Pulse ingredients until coarsely chopped. Add a portion of the olive oil, processing the mixture until all ingredients are incorporated and the mixture is smooth. Season as desired with salt and pepper.
If using the pesto immediately, add the remaining oil and pulse until the mixture is smooth. Scrape into a serving bowl and add parmesan cheese.
If freezing, do not add the Parmesan cheese. Place in an airtight container and pour remaining oil over top of pesto. It will freeze for up to three months. Stir in 1/4 cup Parmesan cheese after thawing.
Lavender is without a doubt my favorite drought-tolerant plant. Aside from its stunning appearance in the garden, it’s a fragrant herb. We added 15 lavender plants to our garden last year, and some of them failed to make it, mostly because of unseasonably cool and moist spring weather. But most of the survivors are now thriving and we have plans to expand our lavender “operation,” because once you get it started, it’s just so darn easy to grow.
If you cut off the first blooms of the season, lavender plants reward you with another late-season show. Yesterday, I decided to harvest some of the flowering buds to dry them for possible potpourris, bundles, and other gifts and to encourage the second wave of blooms. It was great fun!
To experiment with drying stems, buds and leaves, I cut some short stalks from newer plants that were not long enough to dry as bundles. They’ll make great potpourri or sachets, assuming I am smart and industrious enough to figure out how. I included a pretty established white lavender that’s been in the garden for years.
Some of the stems are too short to hang and I don’t want to waste any buds that might fall. I’ve heard of using paper bags, and remembered I could never bring myself to throw out the bags my espresso beans come in. They were the perfect size and already have a sturdy top that’s easy to close and hook onto for hanging. I cut holes in the sides of the bags for ventilation and marked the plant and date on the bag. One concern I have is that the bags still smell (deliciously) like coffee, so I wonder if the lavender inside will blend with that aroma. Worst case? Lavender lattes! Seriously, I might try it.
But I really love the look of dried stem bundles, and six of our one-year-old plants have produced a good crop of long stems. I went ahead and harvested stems from one of them. The trick to gathering long stems is this: You want the length to maximize the look and aroma, so it helps to cut all the way down to the plant’s round shape of existing foliage. But I realized after cutting that I removed many tiny, new flower buds down the stem. That might affect the number of blooms in the second round. We’ll see how the late-summer bloom on this plant compares with the next one I harvest.
Out of one (one-year-old) Royal Velvet English Lavender, I was able to make a respectably sized bundle and a smaller bundle to take to friends I was having a picnic with that later in the day. I also stripped some of the leaves and tiny buds from down the stem and placed them in a coffee bag for even more yield from the plant.
The day before, I had hammered several nails into the beams of our old shed. It’s dry and has good ventilation. It’s not completely dark, which might be the drawback. I used rubber bands to hold the bundle together, and opened up large paper clips to secure the rubber band or the bag tops to the nail. I also slipped a small piece of cut-up old business cards into the bundle’s rubber band with the plant and date and hung it upside down. They should take about a week to dry.
Last week, I posted about the Million Pollinator Garden Challenge. If you haven’t registered your garden yet, this week is a great time to participate. June 15 through 21 marks National Pollinator Week!
And if you feel your garden doesn’t meet the criteria for a pollinator garden or need some help attracting pollinators and saving water at the same time, read on. I’ve got a list of low-water plants that attract bees in particular.
Let’s first review a few reasons you want bees. Their numbers are dwindling, and the more homeowners and businesses that plant gardens to attract and nourish bees, the more we keep bee populations going. In your own garden, bees pollinate more than two-thirds of your flowers and edibles. Apples, cherries, beans, and other healthy and delicious crops in your yard or local farms need bees to produce their fruit or at least lend a hand, and not just in the height of summer. Gardens that provide bee-loving flowers from early spring until late fall help keep local populations thriving.
Here are a few low-water plants bees love:
Bee balm (Monarda “Jacob Kline”). You can’t go wrong with a selection named for the insect. To encourage the large, red flowers, you might have to give it some extra water, however.
Apache plume (Fallugia paradoxa). I’ve mentioned native or wild roses before. The Apache plume is a member of the rose family, but is more shrubby, partially evergreen, native, forgiving to heavy trimming or shaping, and needs no water once established. Bees love the small white flowers.
Thyme. If you allow culinary herbs to flower, bees often go wild. We have thyme in our garden that flowered early this year and is a big attractor. When rosemary blooms, bees swarm all over it.
Sage. Bees also flock to culinary sage. I don’t mind letting some of my herbs flower because I have space. If your space is limited, you might want to cut herbs back (and use them in the kitchen). Pruning makes them healthier, as long as you don’t cut into the woody stems. I prefer to keep a few plants trimmed for culinary use, often in containers, and a few wilder for color (and pollinators). Other sages, such as salvia, also bring bees to your garden.
Onion (Allium) is a popular low-water edible that comes in an ornamental variety called Cokscrew blue twister that attracts bees with its pink flowers.
Pink lamb’s ear (Stachys lavandulifolius). A xeric wildflower that has fuzzy gray leaves and pink flowers to attract bees.
Catmint (Nepeta) has a bluish-purple flower and a strong scent. The low-growing plant can be invasive, however.
Alyssum. If you’ve read my past posts, I have bemoaned this invasive wildflower/weed. But I will say this much: Bees can’t get enough of the pungent blooms, and we probably fed enough honeybees from our yellow land alone in early spring to pollinate half of the desert Southwest!
Fruit trees also attract bees while flowering and there are plenty of vines and shrubs that draw bees to the garden. Carolina jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens) is a low-water, fragrant choice and Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera semperivirens) uses little water and handles heat and cold. Be aware of vine and shrub spread when you place them, especially regarding be buzzing!