Cosmos: You Can Grow That!

Cosmos are the annual gifts that keep on giving. And that’s good, because they’re one of the easiest flowers to grow and they come in a huge range of colors, bloom types and varieties.

Cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) plants are part of the Aster family, and native to Mexico and some areas of the desert Southwest. Between this classic cosmos and the related sulphur cosmos (C. sulphureus), the flowers can grow in nearly a full range of growing zones – from zone 1 through zone 11.

sulphur cosmos flower orange
Sulphur cosmos in bright orange.

Of course, in nearly all but the hottest of these zones, cosmos grows as an annual and dies back with frost. But if you think that is a good reason to avoid growing the plant, I’d like to convince you otherwise. Cosmos is a prolific re-seeder in even the poorest of garden soils.

cosmos in xeric garden pink
Cosmos that have re-seeded every year for at least five years.

Add Color and Wildlife

Cosmos flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds, along with other insects. They will bloom from mid-summer through early or mid-fall, depending on your first frost date. You can cut flowers for indoor arrangements, which also can lead to more blooms. I also leave plenty of dying flowers on the stems because they feed finches. I love watching a finch land on the small, swinging branches to peck away at the seeds. In a world in which so many flowers are yellow, it’s so great to enjoy the white, pink and red tones of cosmos in my xeric garden.

Butterfly on bright pink cosmos blossom.
Butterflies and bees love cosmos flowers.

Plant from Seeds

You can plant cosmos from seeds or nursery transplants. I have had mixed luck growing cosmos from seed until this year. I know the flower seeds like loose soils, but with our dry and windy conditions, I found it better to cover the seeds lightly with some compost and water with a soaker hose to prevent washing away.

As for planting again next year, unless you severely disturb the soil where (and near where) you had cosmos last year, you should get plenty of volunteers as soon as summer rains start, and see the seedlings with their fine leaves growing taller as monsoon rains continue. You can help Mother Nature by gently spraying the area where you want the flowers to appear if early-summer rains have been light.

bright pink cosmos flowers
Re-seeded cosmos flowers have maintained their bright colors.

Most cosmos varieties grow tall, maturing at up to four-feet high, so they often work best at the back of a garden.  If you have a bed or meadow filled with cosmos, they tend to support each other and seldom flop over as some plants can when they get tall. Cosmos loves full sun or part shade.

Sit back and enjoy

Once they become seedlings, cosmos do best with nothing but rain water. Overwatering the plants actually can lead to fewer blooms.

red-pink cosmos flower
The tiny needle-like leaves of cosmos and upright growth make the seedlings easy to spot.

There are some areas of the United States that consider cosmos invasive, including a few spots in western New Mexico. And I admit one of the best characteristics of the plant – easy re-seeding – also can mean it pops up where we don’t want it. For example, if I didn’t pull seedlings out of our steps, we would not be able to walk down to the garden. But I leave a few off to the side for compromise. I pull those that block other plants and let the rest grow as they may. They’re crowded, but I love the effect.

cosmos, babys breath, cornflower in small vase
Cosmos as part of some cut flowers adorn my desk on days when I can’t spend much time outside.

You can grow cosmos and enjoy cutting the flowers for indoor arrangements. And have even more fun watching for new flowers to begin popping up the next summer!

you can grow that logo

Plant Problems: Don’t Blame Yourself

I believe many people avoid outdoor gardening or growing houseplants because they believe everything they grow must grow quickly, flower prolifically and look like the images they see on Pinterest and Instagram.

papaver-poppy bloom pink
Beautiful poppy from wildflower mix. I have posted lots of photos of these on Instagram. But I didn’t mention it took more than five tries to get this wildflower mix to finally take!

First of all, people post their BEST images on social media. For example, I pinch off dead leaves or spent blooms and only show the best part of the frame. Many photos I see are heavily edited and filtered as well. So, let’s get real about gardening, and talk about reasons plants can fail to flower or die. Some of these you can control, and some you just can’t.

pouring rain in new mexico garden
When it finally rained, it poured, flooding our garden paths. Note the lack of blooms on the rose bushes in front left of this photo.

Rain or lack of rain. In the Southwest, we can water only much so much, and must rely on weather, which is more than unpredictable. We water our xeric plants once as they begin to grow in spring, and then reserve water for edibles, containers and new plants. We pretty much rely on nature for everything else.

This year was dry all winter and spring, meaning less grass and more of several weeds (especially the horrible goatheads, or Tribulus terrestris, also called puncture vines) have taken over. We are doing all we can to control them, but are losing. Last year, the grass filled in better, leaving less space for the weeds. And we could easily stirrup hoe young weeds as they popped up. This year, drought followed by a downpour washed thousands of the seeds all over the place, especially to low-lying areas. When rain comes in deluges, many xeric plants respond and reward. But rain at night or a week of cloudy, soggy days can cause some problems in xeric plants like root rot, leaf mold or leggy growth.

hybrid and wild roses in xeric garden
Here are the same roses in early September of the same year. Rain does what our watering can’t, and these are loaded with blooms at the time they usually begin to fade.

Hot and cold extremes. I’m sure temperature has had something to do with the rose blooms, too. Plant information typically is based on the lowest cold temperature a perennial can withstand in winter, not necessarily the effect of heat on the plant. Plus, natives are used to typical temperature rises in early summer, peak heat in mid-summer and cooling temperatures by late summer to early fall. Here’s what happened this summer in much of New Mexico: We had unusually stifling and dry heat in early June. That’s right about the time we planted our vegetable garden and some new ornamentals. We were a week or two late because of vacation, but still, it is not supposed to hit nearly 100 degrees in June here. Then, just as has happened in summers past, the rain and cool temps came late, once fruit had formed on our tomatoes. They don’t ripen as well in cool temperatures. Looks like lots of fried green tomatoes this fall.

basil leaf with brown spots
We depend on basil leaves to be pretty and look edible. This one had some sort of sucking pest on it. I have to cover all my basil all year long.

Critters of all types and sizes. I’ve written lots about critters, especially deer and gopher damage. But insects also seem to thrive in certain conditions that we cannot control. I didn’t see a single hornworm this summer on my tomatoes or potatoes, which is great but weird. But we had a mealy bug infestation. Yes, the potted plant pests showed up in the ground in our garden, attacking soft woody plants, especially our gaillardia. We had to pull the plants up because of damage and to control their spread.

red and green foliage on Chinese pistachio tree
A beautiful Chinese pistache in full fall color. It’s supposed to be deer proof. Maybe the leaves, but…

Deer eat plants and rub antlers on trunks. Gophers don’t just damage roots when they eat them. The tunnels they dig underground can have lasting effects. We’ve had a few areas of our garden where nothing we plant seems to make it. Some of this might be the soil, but we finally figured out there is a huge gopher tunnel network right below where we’ve been planting – the water rushes down through the tunnel, leaving too little for plant roots.

chines pistache tree after deer damage
Here is the same tree as above. Unfortunately, we added the fence after the deer damage. They killed the trunk by rubbing their antlers on it, and only suckers grow below the damage.

A bad start. Maybe you were unaware of the best location for a new plant or how to prep your soil. That happens, plus conditions change. When a tree grows rapidly, it begins to cast shade further out, often shading a plant so much it doesn’t grow or flower as it did three years ago. There’s nothing wrong with the plant; it just needs a little more sun. It’s also possible that a dying plant didn’t stand a chance from the time you purchased it. Sometimes, diseases hide in plant containers or the plants are root bound and have a hard time bouncing back. Give them time.

Overwatering plants. Overwatering often is the reason houseplants, succulents and xeric plants do poorly. It’s our instinct to add water when a plant looks unhealthy, but it is not always the best solution. Plants like African violets need consistent but light moisture or to dry between waterings, so I’ve repotted some with wicks (see more from the African Violet Society). If the water source is deep enough, you might be able to fill the well and water your succulents on the same weekly cycle, taking the guesswork out of it.

violet start and violet flowers pink
An overhead view of a new African violet transpant (Frosted Denim) with wick watering. When my Rhapsodie Nancy’s blooms fade, I will repot it to have a wick as well.

Always keep in mind that with gardening, the perfect photos you see often are like selfies of your friends. You know what your friend looks like with no makeup on, after all. But she’s still beautiful to you and a dear friend, so you view the selfie from a realistic standpoint. Bingo! Don’t compare your plants, garden or landscape to the ones you see in gardening books or the web. And don’t worry so much about perfection; enjoy the journey.

chewed up lettuce starts
With all else equal in this raised bed, I can only guess the squirrels liked one type of lettuce better than others.

Finally, even if a factor you can control added to the plant’s demise, don’t give up on the variety of plant, or especially on gardening! Even the most expert gardeners lose plants sometimes. Just learn and move on.

Save Water and Time in the Garden With These Inexpensive Tools

cloudy-sky-dry-grass
The clouds have come, but the moisture hasn’t. Even the monsoons are late this year.

We are on the verge of ending the longest period without rain in years. And we’ve been spending a lot of time watering, so the rain can’t come soon enough for us, our grass, or our well. I’ve also been busy testing several watering-related products for Gardening Products Review  and that made me think about how to save time when watering.

All of this testing and watering more plants more often has made me reflect on how to make watering more efficient for us, the planet and other homeowners. Here’s part 1 of my list of favorite watering tools, starting with the least expensive, the kinds of tools available at home improvement stores.

quick connector between hose and soaker
A quick connector helps to easily change between watering tools. This one is between a hose from our faucet and a soaker hose.

Quick connectors. We use lots of quick connectors for switching between soaker hoses, sprayers, sprinklers or other watering tools. By screwing a male end into all your watering tools, you can quickly change out and connect several watering tools to the female end of your hose. So, for example, you can quickly switch from spraying off the patio to soaking a garden bed. And once you screw in the connectors, you don’t have to keep screwing on hoses, etc., which never seem to thread right when you’re in a hurry!

metal hose splitter
You can put a splitter directly on the faucet or even between hoses. Both connections have controllers so you can use one and close the other.

Splitters. Look for splitters, or manifolds that split one faucet into two or more outlets, depending on your needs. Solid metal splitters hold up better than plastic ones, but most have hard plastic controls so you can turn water on or off to your drip system or garden hose. This way, you can have one open faucet at all times for filling pails or rinsing a tool and still have a garden hose connected to water your new shrub. We have one on the ground about halfway from our orchard faucet to the other end, then split two hoses off of it to water our fruit trees.

soaker-hose-turtle-garden-art
Soaker hoses work slowly, like a turtle.

Soaker hose. If used correctly, soaker hoses are stars of the inexpensive watering tool department. You can get them for less than $20 at most home improvement stores. The solid rubber hoses have multiple tiny holes so water drips out of all sides. Just be sure to keep pressure low, or you’ll waste water sending fine sprays up in the air.

soaker hose gladiola bed
Here’s a soaker hose wrapped around some plants that require more water than nature usually delivers.

Regulators. My final favorite, inexpensive watering tool is an in-hose “regulator” or shut-off valve. This might not be a necessity for people with smaller gardens or yards, but we have faucets located hundreds of feet from where we garden. I like the exercise, but I don’t like wasting water while I go all the way back to the source to lower the pressure (5 times until I get it right). With these awesome little tools, you can lower the pressure on a dripper or sprinkler near where it’s running. We place ours between the last hose and the one before it.

Even if distance is not a big issue, these come in handy between your hose and soaker hose, which can spew water like a sprinkler if the pressure is too high. And pressure can vary so much. Alternatively, invest in a water wand or similar attachment that has a flow control switch on the handle to drip water when it’s turned down.

dramm-water-wand-green
A water wand like this one from Dramm is a must-have for when you need to hand-water garden areas.

Free tip: Regularly check hoses and drippers for leaks. Hoses are expensive, and they tend to dry out in our desert sun. They also get ruined from being left outside in winter, when water can freeze in the hose, expanding it. So, the first tip is to drain and roll up hoses in winter if you don’t use them and temperatures dip below freezing. And a good hose repair kit is perfect for handy people to fix leaks instead of replacing entire hoses when that’s the best option.

PVC sprinkler connection with quick connector
My husband made a mini-sprinkler for watering new grass seed out of a neighbor’s unwanted PVC pipe and a few sprinkler heads. Notice the male quick connector on the end.

 

Protecting Plants in Your Garden

In this dry year, I feel like our plants are under a triple threat from drought, strong winds and unusual heat for this early in summer. I’ve decided the drought and lack of plant growth on our land and the forest near us has caused insects and larger critters to eat more (and different) plants than usual because they’re hungry or thirsty.

gopher spruge-santolina-thread-grass-rock-garden
Some plants manage in heat and wind, like this gopher spurge, santolina and thread grass.

At any rate, we’re spending way more time watering, covering or doing damage control than we’ve ever had to do in previous years. Here are a few plant attackers and some ideas for fighting them:

jimson-weed-datura-plant-with-blooms
Datura, or jimson weed, thrives in dry heat.

Drought. The first protection is to choose native drought-tolerant plants. A few of ours, namely the santolinas and Datura (jimson weed) have thrived despite no supplemental watering. For the first time in five years, we’re having to water other plants in our rock garden typically immune to short periods of drought. And the rain barrel is running low.

pecan-mulch-lily
We placed a thin layer of pecan bark mulch around these plants last spring. It helps them in cold, heat and drought.

As with ornamental plants, water edibles like tomatoes early in the day and in consistent amounts. They shouldn’t remain wet, but a little moisture in the soil helps them fight dry, windy and hot conditions. Mulching around as many plants as you can (save a few that don’t like wet roots, such as lavender and rosemary) can help them stay damp longer. Finally, remember plants recently moved or planted after purchasing from a nursery need extra water during dry, hot conditions their first year or so.

fabric-covers-vegetables
We have shade cloth that we can lift over our tomato plants when the heat peaks and row cover over basil and strawberry beds.

Heat. Mulching also cools the ground above a plant’s roots, helping the plant get through blazing heat. Sometimes watering is all you can do to protect a plant in record heat. But if the plant is in a container, scoot it into an area that’s slightly shadier or has shade during the time of day when your heat typically peaks. We have been covering our tomato plants with shade cloth this year soon after temperatures soar above 90 degrees. In the past, we’ve had problems with blossoms and fruit set when temperatures soared. Prevention also helps for heat. It’s wise to plant as close as possible to the recommended date for your area. This year, we were traveling and planted later than normal, so our plants had less time to toughen up before heat struck and we paid for that.

lawn-chairs-over-plants
Planting late or having record heat might mean adding shade protection for new plants. Be sure to secure light objects like these “repurposed shading materials” to keep them from blowing onto your plant or away!

Insects. Some plants are just more susceptible to insects than others. And when it’s this hot and dry, all plants are more vulnerable to bugs and the diseases they can transmit. Keeping an eye on your plants, even with a stroll through your yard or garden after dinner, can help you spot problems. Keeping plants watered and free of as much stress as possible also helps.

basil-leaves
The leaves are the “fruit” of a basil plant. We have to take extra care to protect ours.

Others, like basil, are favorites of lots of insects. Since the leaves the insects attack are the part of the plant we eat, I keep my basil covered with a light row cover cloth that lets in air, sunlight and some water, but keeps out as many leaf eaters as possible.

basil-leaf-damage
Some tiny beetles still snuck under the basil cover and damaged early leaves.

Other critters. The tender leaves and ground-level placement of seedlings are also more vulnerable to attack. I’ve seen the leaves of new cucumbers or flowers decimated by grasshoppers and more often, by snails. The slimy acrobats even climb up into containers and eat plants as soon as they come up. We use egg shells as the best deterrent we can find, but there also are snail baits for bad infestations.

fencing-lathe-ground
Gopher fencing below, deer fence above. But the squirrel got in.

Below-ground fencing can deter gophers and other underground tunnelers, but that requires fencing a few feet underground around all plants. We reserve that fun task for our vegetable garden only. Then, despite those efforts, a squirrel has come through the fence and made giant holes in our garden. He has not damaged any plants yet, but I have a feeling it’s coming. We have had some luck spraying Animal Stopper small animal repellent around some plants to deter squirrels.

deer-garden-snow
I could tell this deer was eyeing my rose bushes. Not so bad in winter, but they ate all the plant’s blooms in May and June. Notice the 5-gallon buckets around other plants for warmth and some deer deterrent.

Our deer are grazing much longer into summer this year and have destroyed all the bloom stalks on our native and hybrid roses. You have to be pretty desperate to eat something that thorny on a regular basis. We’ve had some luck with Animal Stopper deer spray, but the only way to ensure deer stay off plants is to fence them out.

shade-structure-cloth-tomatoes
My husband rigged PVC pipe on one side of our tomato bed to hold shade cloth. You can find lots of ideas for inexpensive plant protection from neighbors and social media.

Look to your neighbors, master gardeners and landscapers for more local strategies to help you keep plants alive during rough patches. And practice patience.

 

Guilty Pleasures of a Xeric Gardener

When water is as scarce as it always seems to be in New Mexico, especially this year, I appreciate all of the native and drought-tolerant plants that hang in there until rains finally arrive. After all, it’s the smart and right thing to do here in the Southwest: grow plants that need little to no watering from our wells and taps.

prickly-poppy-bloom-shite
This white prickly poppy is plenty xeric, but the gorgeous blooms fade quickly.

And we follow those principles, doing what we can to save water. Still, I love some plants too much to give them up completely, and I imagine that’s true of many people who move to our dry state. I would hate for any gardener to feel badly for having a few guilty pleasures from the plant world. Here are some strategies for finding the middle ground between gardening sustainably and growing plants you love.

dahlia-bloom-red-yellow-center
Dahlias need deep watering once they emerge, but I had to add a few to an empty spot in our rock garden.

Plant high-water users only as occasional fillers and in moderation. By high-water plant, I mean not xeric, or needing some supplemental watering. If a plant doesn’t meet the soil, sun exposure and watering requirements, you’re unlikely to have much success and will have to resort to photographs from botanical gardens!

native-rose-bloom-pink
Roses evoke lots of passion in growers. Most of ours are natives like this one, but I have a few hybrids just because.

Fill in color with a few annuals. I fill a few patio containers each year with an annual or two or pop a few annuals between xeric plants that flower for only part of the season.

white-gazania-red-petunia-container
Petunias are so easy to grow and spread throughout summer. And gazanias are among my favorite flowers but can’t withstand our winters. So I mixed them in a container.

Grow a few houseplants you love. Geraniums are a favorite of mine, and I don’t have to give them much water in the winter while they survive inside near a sunny window. My new guilty pleasure is violets, although they stay inside all year. Growing orchids, violets and other houseplants more suited to tropical climates can be a guilty pleasure without adding much to water usage. Of course, that’s assuming you stick to a few plants only … if you can.

coral-geranium-cosmos-flowers-background
Geraniums add color to our patio and continue blooming for a month or more once brought inside.
African violet-pink
This is a new African violet kindly given to me. The lush leaves are a marked contrast to those of our xeric plants outside.

Create conditions that help the plant survive with less water. Use mulch, shading or other exposure strategies and careful timing with monsoon rain to help a nonxeric plant make it through hot, dry periods. And accept that your plant might not bloom as much as it would in a wetter climate by enjoying the blooms you get.

double-wave-petunia-bloom-pink-white
I can move this gorgeous Double Wave Petunia in a container around until the sun exposure was just right.

Choose plants you love that are useful to “waste” less water. If you’re growing food for your family (and not wasting lots of harvest), you’re replacing some of the water that might have been used to grow the same food on a large farm, and doing so locally. Plus, the benefits outweigh a little bump in water use and cost. Or grow some cut flowers you love instead of buying them in a store for your home or family and friends. Finally, some flowering plants that require a little more water provide food for hummingbirds, bees and butterflies. Although natives are better, adding a few flowering plants not native to your area can help pollinators.

red-gladiola-bloom-in-vegetable-garden
We planted gladiolas in a large container right in the middle of our vegetable garden for color and protection from deer.
zinnia-blooms-butterfly
Zinnias attract lots of pollinators to our vegetable garden to help us grow food.

And finally — use rain barrels to water your lovelies during dry weeks.

Plant and Repeat

One of the best features of many xeric gardens is the natural look of the landscapes. We often use rocks and boulders and tuck native plants among them. This design most closely mimics the look of the landscape around us.

rock-garden-plants-southwest
Here’s a perfect example of a Southwestern xeric design that’s natural, too. This bed at the entrance to Plants of the Southwest nursery in Albuquerque repeats some plants, but otherwise mimics nature.

If you’ve moved to New Mexico and other Southwestern states from areas of the East and Southeast, you might be more used to a cottage garden look, where shrubs like boxwoods form hedges and foundation plantings repeat the same flower.

grasses-rows-garden
This Austin garden early on our tour inspired the idea to look for repetition. Rows of grasses have order, but look natural and likely help with erosion control.

On a recent trip to Austin, I noticed a perfect blend of both features. Many of the gardens I toured with fellow garden bloggers struck me with how well they used repetition in their designs. But these Texas gardens also had a natural look. Here’s a photo essay from Austin, along with a few New Mexico shots.

repeat-grass-variegated-path
This garden area feels more lush and woodlike than most I’m used to, but had plenty of natural repetition, along with texture contrast.
three-metal-containers-plants
Pam Penick has the concept down! I love these three lined-up metal containers with a complementary mix of plants.
grasses-granite
Repetition can be random and even look natural, like these grasses.
terracotta-pots-row-
Natural terracotta pots with pops of color line an entryway to Lucinda Hutson’s garden.
grasses-line-street-median
Colleen Jamison’s habitat garden extended into her street’s median, where grasses line the curb.

So, Why Repeat Plants or Containers?

I realized we tend to favor single plantings in our gardens, typically choosing a plant based on how it will look in a location or complement a nearby plant. And when you love plants, it’s tough to resist adding any you like to any garden you own. But after seeing the use of repetition, I decided we need to add more repetitive elements. Here are a few reasons why:

lavender-plants-row
One area of repetition in our rock garden is the lavender. This is the top row.

Continuity. A garden is a sort of composition, and repeating an element gives it a sense of balance without making it look too symmetrical or monotonous.

repeated-potted-plants-patio-table
This patio table at Tanglewild Gardens uses repetition in its centerpieces, but repeats natural elements.

Easier maintenance. We all have a plant we’ve tried that survived despite strange weather or a little neglect. Others require little to no pruning or deadheading. Why not scatter a few more of these easy-care plants around your home?

container-plants-three-iron-heart
Pam Penick’s awesome front garden included this container with three of the same plants and a beautiful piece of garden art. The plants have the same watering and exposure requirements.

Color. Although many xeric plants are colorful, some really stand out in the garden. Using the same purple in a row of plants or throughout a garden gives a color focal point.

succulents-containers-color
Lucinda Hutson’s garden was packed with color. Here, she used the same three succulents in colorful matching containers.

Saving money. Sure, you still have to buy the plants, but it is less expensive to buy four of the same perennial once than to fill in an empty space in the garden each year.

b-jane-gardens-repeated-plants
This garden, built and designed by B. Jane Gardens, repeats these plants in a shady raised bed, but the effect is visually appealing and far from formal.

Finally, I would say that repeating plants is a fine example of xeriscaping principles. When you plant 5 native grasses in a grouping, they all have the same water and sun exposure needs. You don’t have to come in and add water for a plant that needs more than the grasses or take the chance of overwatering and killing a nearby plant. And when you use repetitious art or hardscape elements, you add to the design without adding plants — and that requires no water at all!

green-gold-turquoise-containers
Another example of Lucinda Hutson’s use of color and repetition in these outdoor containers.

 

 

 

 

 

Blues in the Garden: That’s a Good Thing

purple-pink-larkspur
Larkspur is nearly blue.

There really is no true blue in garden leaves or flowers, but many blooms come close. Iris, blue cornflower and blue flax come to mind. And there are plenty of violet flowers that have a similar “cool” effect and contrast so nicely with oranges and yellows.

blue pillows and containers, blue striped rug
Lots of little touches of blue make this Austin garden feel cool, calm and colorful

But you don’t need blue flowers to add touches of calm blue to your garden design. I saw this firsthand on my recent tours of Austin gardens with the Garden Bloggers Fling. Here are some of my favorites:

blue-ribbed-plant-containers
Use blue containers — full or empty — to add color.
Blue-container-like-vase
This blue container sits at the end of a walkway in a vegetable area.
clue-container-garden-shade
This container is more subtle and tucked away. Even better, the plant is growing out the bottom. So fun.
fish design chairs and blue container
A blue fish chair design and container turned table/art display.
bottle-tree-blue
Go big and blue with bottles.
blue-glass-metal-sculpture
Add blue and whimsy with a sculpture like this one by Mike Fowler of Hutto.
blue-ceramic-frog-containers
Or go small with a tiny frog and blue-patterned container.
blue-painted-garden-wall
A painted fence or wall adds a bright blue background.
blue-container
This small succulent centerpiece ties this patio together.
blue-container-frogs-standing
Deep blue pottery with some more fun frogs at Tanglewild Gardens
blue-door
Pam Penick’s awesome blue front door and plant stand.

Plus, garden art requires no watering or maintenance.  Paint is especially inexpensive. It just couldn’t be simpler to add pops of color to your patio, deck or garden.

spa-pool-view
Crystal clear water adds the best blue of all!

Special thanks to the wonderful garden bloggers and gardeners of Austin for your hospitality. What a great time!

Hooked on Worm Castings

My husband’s got worms and I couldn’t be more thrilled. Because his worms eat food scraps and produce a nectar-like waste product – worm castings.

worms in feeding tray
Our worms have produced rich compost — and more worms!

With vermicomposting, he’s producing a soil amendment (humus) full of more than 60 micronutrients and trace minerals to gently and naturally support plant growth. Worm castings are the excrement left by worms, and the worm tower he uses for vermicomposting makes it easy to feed the worms and harvest their castings.

worm-castings-in-bin
Worm castings in the collection tray ready to sift through and harvest.

Benefits of Worm Castings

  • Castings hold all sorts of live micronutrients that help plants better absorb nutrients from soil, especially soil with low or high pH.
  • The worm castings can help repel some pests such as white flies and aphids; an enzyme in the castings is offensive to pests.
  • Feeding worms food scraps reduces and recycles garbage throughout the year.
  • Worm castings do not stink!
succulent-added-castings
This potted succulent didn’t bloom until it got about a tablespoon of worm castings.

How a Worm Bin Works

worm-factory-bin
A Nature’s Footprint Worm Factory has trays with levels to feed worms and make compost.

Tim purchased a Worm Factory from Nature’s Footprint a few years ago. He keeps it in a corner of the garage for easy access and protection. Vermicomposting works with upward migration. The worms move up to eat, and gravity sends moisture and castings to the bottom. Adding food at the top every so often (when worms are actively eating the last food you added and are moving to the top tray) keeps the worms continuously fed and reproducing. The worms eat paper, fruit and vegetable scraps, bread, coffee grounds and eggshells, along with other scraps. The bedding added to each level eventually breaks down into castings as well.

worm-bin-food-tray
The food tray with bedding sits on top and worms move up to eat.

The resulting compost is thick, dark and crumbly. Its ready to use as soon as you harvest. Some of the best uses are to mix the castings in with garden soil as an amendment or to top dress container plants. We added castings to some of our vegetable starts last year a few weeks after planting, just loosely scratching the castings into the soil around the plants. It takes less worm compost to improve soil than regular compost.  Finally, use worm castings to make compost tea.

worm-castings-harvest-to-bucket
We now have nearly 3 gallons of worm compost in this bucket. A fitted lid keeps it airtight.

A Few Tips

Keep the tower warm in winter. You might have to either move a worm bin or give it some heat. There are insulators made for bins. Tim hangs a lamp over the bin and sets a timer so the lamp warms the bin at night. Even if production slows, the worms are warm enough, and the food does not freeze.

worm-bin-under-light
Tim keeps the worm bin inside the garage with a light on a timer for winter warmth.

You’ll have more success if you break the food scraps into manageable sizes, about the size you get when running a peeler over a carrot.

Be sure to check instructions for worm type. Red wigglers (Elsenia festida) eat and reproduce better than most, but you can use European nightcrawlers (E. Hortensis), which work well in our tower.

harvesting-worm-castings
Once he emptied this layer of worm castings, he placed the empty tray on the bottom of the bin.

Store your worm castings in an airtight container and they’ll continue to break down. Just let the castings dry a little before sealing. They can be damp but not wet.

The leachate, or liquid that runs down, can be toxic. Don‘t use it if it smells bad or on edibles. Be sure to dilute it with a ratio of about 10 parts water to one part leachate.

If you’re looking for a way to get kids involved in gardening, worms are it! What fun kids can have helping care for the worms and seeing how they help a family grow food or pretty flowers for mom. It’s also a great way to teach responsibility if kids are charged with prepping scraps or bedding and feeding worms.

sifting-compost-worms
We returned worms still in the castings tray to the food tray and sifted out large bits of food or paper, leaving a rich compost.

If you can’t spend the money on a worm bin or tower, you can find information on making your own or vermicomposting directly into a garden bed.

Favorite Flower: Nigella

I just discovered this delicate, early bloomer in the past few years when friends suggested Love-in-a-Mist (Nigella damascene) seeds from our local iris farm. The foliage looks much like fennel or dill as seedlings sprout, and nigella also is called fennel flower.

pink, purple and white love in a mist flowers
Love in a mist grows from between rocks bordering our xeric garden.

Nigella Is Versatile

We grew multicolored love in a mist in our rock garden. Tim threw the seeds out in fall and by mid-spring, we had fine fern-like leaves popping up from between the rocks. Although Nigella does best in damp sandy soil, ours grew out from under rocks that make up the walls of our xeric garden. The rocks likely held moisture longer than a spot in the open might have. The rocks also trapped the tiny seeds so fewer blew away. Plus, nigella can tolerate dry conditions.

Nigella in rocks at steps in garden.
Here are the same flowers from a wider angle — in the corner to the right of the potted geranium.

But then we tried another approach – we bought a packet of Bridal Veil (Heirloom White Nigella) seeds from Renee’s Garden and sowed them in early summer in a blank spot of our vegetable garden. This soil is far better in quality, and the seeds received consistent drip watering. The flowers were taller and stunningly white, with maroon to black centers. The plants reproduce from seeds, assuming some seedheads are left on plants at the end of the season.

bridal veil white Nigella.
These heirloom bridal veil flowers thrived in our vegetable garden and the contrast of colors is gorgeous and fun.

Sow in Fall or Spring

Although most instructions for growing nigella say to sow in spring, you can sow them in fall in areas with mild winters. They need full sun and grow in zones 2 through 10. That worked well for us last year, but this winter has been dry and consistently colder, so I’m anxious to see how many reseeded in our gardens. The bridal veil flowers in our vegetable garden bloomed later in the year, but were planted later. Sowing the seeds a few weeks apart in spring and fall can help ensure constant blooming of nigella in summer.

overhead view of love in a mist
The many colors of love in a mist add interest to the garden or flower arrangements.

Use as a Cut Flower

You can cut nigella blooms for flower arrangements, and even better, cut some of the seedheads. If you cut the flowers to enjoy indoors, leave a few blossoms on the plant so they can dry and drop seeds for the next year. If you get too many, thin them out while small. Enjoy the seedheads after flowering by cutting their stems just after flowers fade, and hang them upside down away from direct sun.

nigella seedpod and flower
Nigella seedhead after blooming alongside remaining white flower.

Nigella is easy to grow and a great addition to any xeric garden!

nigella seedpod
A nigella seedpod. I can’t wait to try drying some of these this summer.

 

 

 

 

 

Repurpose Objects for a Perfectly Imperfect Garden