5 Xeric Plants for Containers

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Growing in containers gives you flexibility; you can move plants around based on shade and sun exposure or bring some inside for winter. There are plenty of reasons to have lots of fun or decorative containers (or an entire row of them!) Here are 5 great low-water choices and a few tips for growing succulents and other xeric plants in containers.

Agave

agave-skull-ends-protect
Agave makes a striking single plant, and you can add these fun protectors to keep it from striking you as you pass by!

Pot these upright succulents when you have limited space or your winter low prohibits growing them in the ground. Some agaves become quite large, but probably will grow a little slower in a pot. Try those smaller than about a foot in diameter (basketball-sized at maturity) such as black-spined, artichoke and Queen Victoria for great container-scale plants. The rosette shape of most agaves makes them perfect as the only plant in a container. Line the top of the soil with decorative rocks or glass and your container design is done! Agaves withstand heat and drought, and some can take cold (such as A. parryi). Most, however, can only handle light freezes.

Rosemary

rosemary-container
Rosemary can grow in containers in climates either too cold or too hot for the herb.

My favorite versatile herb can grow well in containers. Depending on the look you want, select an upright (bush) type to add height to a mix of xeric container plants or choose a trailing rosemary to drape over the side. Either one should bloom at some point during the growing season. You can move your container rosemary inside to a sunny window or leave outside against a warm south-facing wall for year-round access to the tasty herb. Some varieties can survive winters down to zone 5 or 6, but most do best in warmer climates. And remember, that container cools off faster than the ground.

Portulaca

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Portulaca is versatile — you can use one color to excellent effect or add mixes for pops of color in containers.

Portulaca plants are idea for containers, especially for adding texture, draping shape and outstanding color. I love filling containers with portulaca, but also love placing them beneath a tall plant in a container to add interest. They grow best in dry, well-draining soil in full sun. Portulaca plants are annuals, but always available in Southwest nurseries. They spread so quickly and bloom so heavily that they are well worth the money. Choose from bloom colors in reds, oranges, yellows, whites and pink. They often drop tiny seeds that will show up as volunteers the next year, which can be fun. Or you can easily pull up the shallow roots.

Lantana

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Lantana Ultra Yellow is a bright container plant. Image courtesy of Plant Select.

These gorgeous plants make great low-growing borders, hedges or potted plants, depending on your climate. Potted lantanas drape over the side, adding shape and dimensions to container arrangements. I love the salmon-pink and lemon-yellow bloom arrangements. Some varieties grow large, but look for dwarf varieties such as Pinkie or Patriot. In the low desert (zones 9 through 11), lantana plants can be outside all year. In high deserts of New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, we have to grow them as annuals or bring them inside when temperatures dip to about 55 degrees.

Any Succulent

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Happy succulents winter indoors with good southern sun, and travel outside in summer.

Containers dry out faster than the ground, making xeric plants, and especially succulents, the perfect container plants. Succulents need well-draining soil, so look for mixes that don’t retain too much water. Once you get the right soil mix, you should be able to water your succulents lightly once a week and have plenty of success. Most also grow slowly, so they don’t require frequent repotting. Some of my favorites are jade, echeveria, sempervivum, haworthia  and crown of thorns.

A few tips for growing xeric plants in containers:

  • Make sure you have well-draining soil so the roots do not stay too wet.
  • Likewise, provide drainage at the bottom of the container.
  • Water slowly and lightly when possible to avoid washing out soil and nutrients.
  • Most xeric container plants need lots of sun, but keep an eye out for too much sun, especially when moving a plant back outdoors for the summer or placing it inside too close to a window.
  • Try to keep xeric plants together in arrangements, since they have similar watering needs. Or if mixing, find a way to separate low-water plants by potting within the larger pot or ensuring water drains away from them.
  • Overwatering leads to the demise of more xeric plants, especially container succulents, than other issues.

 

Looking Up in the Garden

 

trees-and-skyWhen you tour botanical gardens or private gardens, do you ever look up to see what’s above your head? Most of us plan our gardens while sitting on our back patio or strolling through its paths. Often, we choose plants simply because we see them at a nursery and love their flowers. There’s nothing wrong with that, but one day soon, take a look at your landscape from the point of entry, such as the gate to your backyard, and walk around,  considering the overall look from ground level to tree canopy.

You might be pleasantly surprised, and you can add interest and beauty to  your garden by considering what goes on over your head. I recently toured several gardens in the Denver area and noted use of arbors and other design elements to add height and 360-degree interest to landscapes. Here are a few examples.

Decks and Patios

Al you need are a few containers and some “engineering” skills to garden vertically, so to speak. Here are some of my favorite examples.

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We all love a few containers on the deck or patio, but floor space is limited, right? Jim Borland, co-host of Ask the Garden Pros on Denver radio station EZ 1430, has “looking up” down to a science.
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Here’s a totally different style of plant for a different style of home. These giant fuchsias hang from baskets on the front porch of Kirsten and Scott Hamling’s home in Denver.
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I love the ingenious ways Denver-area homeowners have for hanging baskets. This fun collection hangs from overhead at the home of Dan Johnson and Tony Miles of Englewood, CO.
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And a little whimsy always helps. Jim Borland has a container with grass hanging on his back patio. I am not sure how he mows it…
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The prize for most containers in a yard, not just in Denver, but maybe anywhere, goes to Rob Proctor and David Macke. They have more than 600 containers — filled with healthy plants. Rob is a garden expert, author, lecturer and TV personality in Denver. I love these pink petunias up the steps.

Arbors and Pergolas

Some plants are just born to trail up, down or around. With a well-placed arbor, you can add height, shapes, color and materials to your garden. Most of all, you can display some beautiful climbing plants that double as shade-makers.

round-arbor-wood-climbing roses
Such a pretty structure that draws your eye up and shows off bright pink roses. This was one of many highlights in Carol and Randy Shinn’s garden in Fort Collins, CO.
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This wooden structure in Jan and Richard Devore’s Fort Collins garden is natural and unobtrusive, helping your eye see the climbing branches and foliage.
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Even more natural are these twisting, shady treetops, also in the Devores’ large backyard.
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Another great thing about looking up: Southwest skies. This arbor at the Denver Botanic Garden provided shade, plant support and a peek at the gorgeous clouds.
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This beautiful arbor at the Johnson-Miles garden looks great from the bottom up.

Mix up Plant Heights

Finally, don’t be afraid to add tall trees or other natural elements right in the middle of your garden. I always worry I have to place the tallest plants in the back. But breaking the “rules” can be fun and a hit.

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The Shinns had a gorgeous mix of dry river beds, native plants, roses and other ornamentals in their front yard … and a giant tree as a focal point for the 360-degree view.

 

5 Tips for Choosing the Right Container for Your Plants

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Talavera, clay and metal pottery mix well on these garden shelves and walls.

If you’re like me, you often choose a container based on how much you like it or its color. Those are good reasons; after all, you want to enjoy your purchase when it’s in your home or on your patio. And the color might be important to curb appeal or your entryway statement. But it helps to keep in mind a few other tips for container choices based on:

small-tomato-plant-marigolds-large-container
This large container didn’t look sparse for long. The tomato grew and the marigolds spread.

Container Size

Some plants need a container large enough to support a plant’s growth. For example, even patio tomatoes need a pot about 12 inches in diameter.  The diameter is not always listed. A 10-inch container equates to about 3 gallons, and a 14-inch container to nearly 7 gallons, but it depends on the depth. As a general rule, go for about 5 gallons for container-grown tomatoes.

In 2004, standards were released to help ensure more consistent labeling from nurseries. For example, a 1-gallon potted plant is about 152 to 251 cubic inches, taking into account diameter and depth. Be sure to consider the mature size of plants when arranging containers.  For single plants, purchase a container at least a size larger than the one a plant comes in. There are exceptions, however.

burro-tail-succulent-containers
Many cacti and succulents need smaller pots to confine root growth; it’s fun to be creative with color and shape.

Some plants prefer crowded roots. Many succulents will fail to grow and flower if placed in a container that is too large. When in too large a pot, all the plant’s energy goes to the easiest activity – growing more roots. This means less energy can go into producing growth above the soil line. So, try not to go more than 10% larger than the size of the succulent. And keep in mind some succulents have tap roots and need enough depth for those roots to grow and seek water.

The same goes for a totally unrelated plant: the African violet. Violets do best with crowded roots and need good drainage, just like succulents. Place an African violet in a container smaller than the diameter of the leaves (those who grow the plants for shows generally choose containers one-third the diameter of the foliage). And repot plants like African violets every so often, gradually increasing container size as needed. Don’t take a violet (or succulent) in a 3-inch pot up to 10 inches in one repotting.

petunias-round-clay-pot
I love these shallow clay pots, but many plant roots need more depth.

Container Shape

Look at the container depth as well as its diameter. I love the look of shallow terracotta containers, but they only work with annuals and shallow-rooted plants. Those violets and many rosette-shaped succulents also can take shallower shapes. But your tomato needs good depth to form large, healthy roots. I’ve pulled up cherry tomato roots that were at least 15 inches long. And if your cactus has a tap root, make sure the pot’s height can allow for growth.

Container shape also affects plant placement and the overall appeal of the container. A tall container looks best with at least one tall plant element and maybe a trailing one.

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Glazed pots can look colorful and elegant. and mix nicely with terracotta.

Container Material

Clay or terracotta pots are excellent for indoor or outdoor succulents. They dry out quickly because the sides are porous. These pots usually are your best bet for drought-tolerant plants, but not for vegetables or many ornamental flowers. And African violets in clay pots often dry out too quickly. Plastic and fabric pots are less expensive and lighter. The material’s weight is a consideration for any plant you know you might have to move to change sun or shade exposure, or bring indoors in winter.

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It’s fun to create containers, but even succulent containers need some drainage.

Container Drainage

All containers need good drainage, even those you use for succulents. Few plants do well sitting in wet soil for long. If you repurpose a container, be sure to drill some holes in the bottom. And try not to let the container (especially a shallow one) sit in a full saucer if you use one to catch drainage. If your container appears to drain too quickly, change how you water – a little at a time repeated once or twice. Always add water to a container at a slow rate instead of a heavy pour. Drenching the container makes soil nutrients run right out with the water.

green-yellow-blue-containers on shelf
Lucinda Hutson’s Austin garden is one of the most colorful I’ve seen. I love the color of the paint with the three container colors.

Container Color

I have decided to go more colorful with container choices from now on. It’s tempting to “match” an entry or house color, or to have a container blend in on your patio. Sometimes, though, you can make a really bold statement by choosing a container that is bright, colorful (like Talavera pottery) or a nice contrast to plants inside and around it.

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The old man cactus (right) still thrives, although we have potted it up a few times.

Finally, if you find a container that will look perfect in a spot because of its color, shape or pattern, but maybe the wrong material or size for your plant, try slipping another pot inside it. I even did that once several years ago when I wanted to add an “old man cactus” (Cephalocereus senilis) to some annuals in a decorative entry-way container. I knew its watering needs were different, so I set the cactus pot into the soil of the larger pot and never really watered above it. The plant received plenty of moisture from the soil around its container. Then, I pulled the old man out in fall and we potted him inside for winter. He still is thriving, now in a terracotta pot with other cacti.

 

 

5 Reasons Succulents Make Great Gifts

Not sure what to give a loved one, friend or co-worker as a holiday gift? You can’t beat succulents. Here are five reasons why:

1. Easy care, even for brown thumbs.

 

Although succulents can die, they are easier to care for than most plants. You can kill them only with kindness (too much water). And even leaves of heat-loving succulents can burn in direct sun. But they make great gifts for people who want a little green but have less than green thumbs. Keep it simple with common succulents like Echevaria or Sempervivum. Both plants come in pretty rosette shapes.

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Many succulents have pretty rosette shapes.

2. Succulents make people smile.

Partly because they’re easy, and maybe because of their fleshy, healthy-looking leaves or pads, these plants bring a touch of natural, living matter to the dullest setting. You can find popular ways of displaying succulents as décor. And if the recipient likes to live on the edge, a nice spiny cactus is a fun gift that could be the gateway to growing more houseplants.

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Succulent Love on display at Austin’s Articulture

3. Succulents grow in lots of container types.

A few weeks ago, I posted about growing cacti in containers. Succulents are so easy to plant in natural, pretty or quirky containers. Small ones can grow in tiny holes of rocks or driftwood. Air plants are even easier to grow in unique containers, since they require no soil.

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I love these white geometric succulent containers on a patio table in an Austin garden.

4. Adding a personal touch is easy.

So, maybe the succulent you choose for a gift isn’t so unique, but you plant it in a coffee cup with a message, or a souvenir that has sentimental value. You can use your sense of humor or a little romance when choosing how to present a small succulent – or several. Or select one based on the name (maybe String of Pearls?) You also can make your gift more personal with a small set of instructions on how to care for the plant. You can look for information online or write up how you take care of succulents.

succulent-in-metal-container
An old metal container with sentimental value holds this succulent.

5. They’re popular and available.

The trend in succulent plantings, arrangements and decoration on all sorts of materials might not last forever. But while it does, it is easy to find a great selection of succulents for gift-giving.

succulents on nursery shelf
Your local nursery greenhouse is sure to be loaded with lots of succulent choices.

Here are some favorite small succulents:

Echevaria, several varieties

Sempervivum (such as hens and chicks)

Sedum morganianum (Burro’s tail)

Euphorbia milii (Crown of Thorns) and it is thorny!

Crassula ovata (Jade plant)

Mamillaria crinita (Pincushion cactus)

Haworthia fasciata (Zebra plant)

haworthia-foliage
Harowthia is such a fun succulent, and it can send up a stem with yellow flowers.

Zwartkop (Aenonium arboretum)

Also, Tillandsias (airplants) come in lots of types and colors.

 

Grow—or Give—Container Cacti

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Succulents, and especially cactus plants, usually prefer heat and drought. That’s one reason they make such perfect plants for desert gardens. But in the high deserts or mountains of New Mexico and other Southwestern states, many cacti only can live outdoors in the summer. Enter containers…

cacti in fun containers bishop cap
These little cacti get great winter sun on a south-facing wall. They only travel outdoors in the warmest months. Two of these containers are thrift store finds.

Why Plant Cacti in Containers?

The best reason for planting cacti in containers is the flexibility it offers. You can move the plant throughout the year (carefully) to bring it outdoors when summer nights warm and indoors as frost approaches. But you also can move your cacti around to control temperature or sun exposure. Even succulents can burn from intense sun, so it is good to keep an eye on the plants and rotate or move them depending on sun, including sun from a south- or west-facing windows.

cacti and succulents in containers on shelf outdoor with shade fabric
Cacti and succulents sunning outside, but with a shade cloth during intense sunshine.

Another reason to plant cacti in containers is to isolate watering. When planted outside, especially near drip or other watering systems, cacti can get too much water. With containers, you can control cactus watering based on season and when the plant goes dormant. If you love the look of a cactus in your desert landscape, nothing says it has to be in the ground! If the water or temperature conditions are not ideal, place your cactus outside in a colorful container. Just remember – the outdoor container should have good drainage and can cool off more at night, so don’t leave a container cactus outdoors in winter unless it is hardy to at least 10 degrees cooler than your lowest low.

old man cactus in container, grass, rosemary
Here’s that old man cactus in the first photo, outside on the xeric garden wall in summer.

Finally, most cacti are slow growers, so you don’t’ have to repot them often. Other cacti spread out of control in the garden. You’ve probably seen a xeric yard in your neighborhood with prickly pear growing like a sprawling hedge, maybe onto the sidewalk. It is easier to control cacti when in the confines of a container.

Container Cactus Mix

Planting and caring for cacti in containers is easy, but the soil mix is crucial to success. If you plant a cactus in standard container potting mix, which is designed to help retain water, your cactus roots will get soggy and rot. You can buy special cactus mixes or make your own. Ask friends or local experts for ideas. Examples include adding 1 part coarse sand and 5 parts perlite (for airflow and drainage) to 4 parts of potting mix. Vermiculite also improves aeration but holds too much water. You also can add a little bit of rock dust or pumice to your mix.

spiny cactus in metal container
Handle container-planted cacti carefully, although the spines didn’t stop this wild daisy from seeding in the container.

Handle your cactus carefully while transplanting. You can use an old sock or towel to wrap around the plant near the base and lift it out of the pot. Or turn the pot with the cactus on its side, resting the plant on an old pillow (that you won’t use again) to cushion the plant while you pull the container off the root ball.

Old long-handled barbecue tongs are great tools for holding a cactus while you place it in its new container; or use regular tongs for smaller plants. The eraser side of a pencil works great for gently pressing soil down around smaller cacti.

tall columnar euphorbia in container
This columnar euphorbia (a succulent, but not a cactus) now only moves arouond inside. It is too tough to take out to the yard now.

Some Favorite Container Cacti

Some of these cacti are spinier than others, so you might want to be careful where you place them. Many will flower, especially in spring or early summer. And some can tolerate pretty cold temperatures, but still would be fun winter houseplants.

Barrel cactus (Echinocactus grusonii). The golden barrel and other barrel cacti are such great landscape plants, giving a pretty round shape to landscape designs. I especially love them on hills. But they’re only hardy to 15 to 17 degrees, so we keep ours in a container.

pencil cholla and golden barrel cactus in containers.
Pencil cholla on left and barrel cactus on right, wintering over in a sunny spot.

Pencil cholla (Cylindropuntia leptocaulis). Pencil cholla are pretty scary looking, with spines up to one inch long sticking out from tall, thin branches. They are hardy to -20 degrees and love heat, but spread easily in the yard.

Bishops cap (Astrophytum myriostigma). This is an attractive and slow-growing cactus perfect for a container, especially since it only can handle cold down to 20 degrees. I love the sort of grainy white and green look of the plant. See the second photo above. That is a bishops cap in the middle.

rounded cacti in round container
I love this circular arrangement of cacti in a shallow container.

Hedgehog cacti (Echinocereus). It’s native to the U.S. and Engelmanns hedgehog is most common throughout the Southwest. It’s spiny, but should produce bright pink flowers more than two inches across. The plant only reaches about 10 inches in height.

Fence post (Pachycereus maginatus). This is a columnar, almost regal cactus. The columns have ridges with small spines and when planted in a row, they form an excellent wall. Columnar cacti are great choices for planting in containers of homes with high ceilings or to simply provide height behind a grouping of houseplants. They just need plenty of filtered sun.

cactus and ocotillo in outdoor container
I love this vertical planting with ocotillo we spotted at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson.

Ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens). It’s hard to imagine this sprawling cactus in a container, but it can be done. It will need summer heat and can survive temperatures down to 20 below freezing. So, the garden can work, but you can control ocotillo growth in a container and enjoy it as a rising backdrop to other cacti or succulents.

Old man cactus (Cephalocereus senilis). This is by far one of my favorite cacti. But it needs to stay in temperatures above 46 degrees, despite its shaggy layer of “hair.” This is another slow grower, and often a conversation starter in a home!

Spineless prickly pear (Opuntia canacapa). For the look of a gorgeous green and juicy cactus pad and no spines, go with this pretty plant. It still will grow new pads, but you can cut them off or plant them elsewhere. Both regular and hardy prickly pears can survive temperatures down to zero.

clay pot with several vertical cacti outside on patio
Cactus containers on a patio in an Austin, Texas, garden.

 

 

It’s Getting Cold Out, So Garden Indoors

The leaves are falling, but you don’t have to sink into winter doldrums. You can keep up your green thumb and all the joy you get from growing with indoor plants. All that greenery inside your house is much more cheerful than the brown landscape and bare trees outside. So fill your home with green and flowers.

geranium and houseplants on table.
Fall is the time to bring geraniums, succulents and other houseplants indoors — and then find a spot for them!

Here are a few ideas on how to extend the season and ease into winter slowly.

Adjust houseplant conditions

Even houseplants that live indoors all year might need some winter preparation. This includes cutting back on watering and fertilizing and cleaning leaves to allow as much light as possible to reach the plant. Because winter days are shorter, and the sun in the northern hemisphere is lower, you might have to move plants to different windows or supplement their light with grow lights. And be sure not to overwater houseplants in winter. Most need a break to rest, and only need water when the soil dries out.

succulent arrangement
These succulents spend winter indoors near a warm wall and sunny window. We can move them around as the sun moves up or down in the southern sky.

Move container plants inside

We move inside any plant we love and think can make it at least a few months inside. It helps if it is not too heavy to move. This includes many succulents that can’t take low temperatures, geraniums, and plants that tolerate shade. We had a gorgeous coleus container we brought inside one year. It got leggy, but we were able to enjoy it for a few months more than if we had discarded it.

barrel cactus and aloe in containers
Most of our succulents can’t handle the cold winter lows in zone 6B, so they come inside for winter.

Harvest or grow edibles

Pick green tomatoes if still viable on the vine and let them ripen indoors, fry them up or make a tomato sauce starter. Making pesto is fun, but you also can cut basil branches and place in a jar of water for extended life. If canning is your thing, it feels good to prep for winter by preserving fruits and vegetables. When you miss your summer garden, visit the dark cool area where the jars of your preserved crops are stored. You can grow sprouts in glass jars to “summer up” sandwiches and salads.

herb garden vertical
This sunny room in my daughter’s house is perfect for houseplants and herbs.
chives and basil in window
You can extend the season for some herbs inside. Or look for lights and systems that help you grow herbs and microgreens all year.

Take cuttings of favorite plants

That coleus that got too big and lanky? We could have rooted new coleus plants from cuttings instead of bringing the mature plant inside. There’s a fun indoor project! In fact, try taking cuttings of favorite plants and starting them indoors. Not all plants are easy to propagate, but with some practice, you can start your own plants for the next spring.

Succulents often bloom in winter and early spring, adding color to your indoor gardens.

Buy a new houseplant

African violets can bloom almost continuously if they receive enough sun and consistent, light moisture and repotting as needed. There are thousands of varieties with different bloom colors and styles and variegated leaves. Many succulents bloom in winter (such as Christmas cactus) or in spring, when you’re really itching to get outside and grow. Both succulents and African violets also are easy to grow from leaf cuttings, though the technique is very different for each.

violet succulent
African violets and succulents are easy to start from cuttings.

Guilty Pleasures of a Xeric Gardener

When water is as scarce as it always seems to be in New Mexico, especially this year, I appreciate all of the native and drought-tolerant plants that hang in there until rains finally arrive. After all, it’s the smart and right thing to do here in the Southwest: grow plants that need little to no watering from our wells and taps.

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This white prickly poppy is plenty xeric, but the gorgeous blooms fade quickly.

And we follow those principles, doing what we can to save water. Still, I love some plants too much to give them up completely, and I imagine that’s true of many people who move to our dry state. I would hate for any gardener to feel badly for having a few guilty pleasures from the plant world. Here are some strategies for finding the middle ground between gardening sustainably and growing plants you love.

dahlia-bloom-red-yellow-center
Dahlias need deep watering once they emerge, but I had to add a few to an empty spot in our rock garden.

Plant high-water users only as occasional fillers and in moderation. By high-water plant, I mean not xeric, or needing some supplemental watering. If a plant doesn’t meet the soil, sun exposure and watering requirements, you’re unlikely to have much success and will have to resort to photographs from botanical gardens!

native-rose-bloom-pink
Roses evoke lots of passion in growers. Most of ours are natives like this one, but I have a few hybrids just because.

Fill in color with a few annuals. I fill a few patio containers each year with an annual or two or pop a few annuals between xeric plants that flower for only part of the season.

white-gazania-red-petunia-container
Petunias are so easy to grow and spread throughout summer. And gazanias are among my favorite flowers but can’t withstand our winters. So I mixed them in a container.

Grow a few houseplants you love. Geraniums are a favorite of mine, and I don’t have to give them much water in the winter while they survive inside near a sunny window. My new guilty pleasure is violets, although they stay inside all year. Growing orchids, violets and other houseplants more suited to tropical climates can be a guilty pleasure without adding much to water usage. Of course, that’s assuming you stick to a few plants only … if you can.

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Geraniums add color to our patio and continue blooming for a month or more once brought inside.
African violet-pink
This is a new African violet kindly given to me. The lush leaves are a marked contrast to those of our xeric plants outside.

Create conditions that help the plant survive with less water. Use mulch, shading or other exposure strategies and careful timing with monsoon rain to help a nonxeric plant make it through hot, dry periods. And accept that your plant might not bloom as much as it would in a wetter climate by enjoying the blooms you get.

double-wave-petunia-bloom-pink-white
I can move this gorgeous Double Wave Petunia in a container around until the sun exposure was just right.

Choose plants you love that are useful to “waste” less water. If you’re growing food for your family (and not wasting lots of harvest), you’re replacing some of the water that might have been used to grow the same food on a large farm, and doing so locally. Plus, the benefits outweigh a little bump in water use and cost. Or grow some cut flowers you love instead of buying them in a store for your home or family and friends. Finally, some flowering plants that require a little more water provide food for hummingbirds, bees and butterflies. Although natives are better, adding a few flowering plants not native to your area can help pollinators.

red-gladiola-bloom-in-vegetable-garden
We planted gladiolas in a large container right in the middle of our vegetable garden for color and protection from deer.
zinnia-blooms-butterfly
Zinnias attract lots of pollinators to our vegetable garden to help us grow food.

And finally — use rain barrels to water your lovelies during dry weeks.

Blues in the Garden: That’s a Good Thing

purple-pink-larkspur
Larkspur is nearly blue.

There really is no true blue in garden leaves or flowers, but many blooms come close. Iris, blue cornflower and blue flax come to mind. And there are plenty of violet flowers that have a similar “cool” effect and contrast so nicely with oranges and yellows.

blue pillows and containers, blue striped rug
Lots of little touches of blue make this Austin garden feel cool, calm and colorful

But you don’t need blue flowers to add touches of calm blue to your garden design. I saw this firsthand on my recent tours of Austin gardens with the Garden Bloggers Fling. Here are some of my favorites:

blue-ribbed-plant-containers
Use blue containers — full or empty — to add color.
Blue-container-like-vase
This blue container sits at the end of a walkway in a vegetable area.
clue-container-garden-shade
This container is more subtle and tucked away. Even better, the plant is growing out the bottom. So fun.
fish design chairs and blue container
A blue fish chair design and container turned table/art display.
bottle-tree-blue
Go big and blue with bottles.
blue-glass-metal-sculpture
Add blue and whimsy with a sculpture like this one by Mike Fowler of Hutto.
blue-ceramic-frog-containers
Or go small with a tiny frog and blue-patterned container.
blue-painted-garden-wall
A painted fence or wall adds a bright blue background.
blue-container
This small succulent centerpiece ties this patio together.
blue-container-frogs-standing
Deep blue pottery with some more fun frogs at Tanglewild Gardens
blue-door
Pam Penick’s awesome blue front door and plant stand.

Plus, garden art requires no watering or maintenance.  Paint is especially inexpensive. It just couldn’t be simpler to add pops of color to your patio, deck or garden.

spa-pool-view
Crystal clear water adds the best blue of all!

Special thanks to the wonderful garden bloggers and gardeners of Austin for your hospitality. What a great time!

Repurpose Objects for a Perfectly Imperfect Garden

10 Fall Chores in the Garden

As fall temperatures drop, there’s still plenty to do in the Southwest garden. In most areas of New Mexico, freeze hits by mid- to late October. But plenty of sunny days hit in fall here so gardeners can get outside and take care of these chores before winter arrives:

fall leaves
Raking up gorgeous fall leaves is just one fall chore outdoors.

1. Harvest

If you still have any vegetables ripening, better harvest them now. Tomatoes and winter squashes can finish ripening inside. If you haven’t harvested and dried herbs, now is the time to trim them back and get them ready for use in the kitchen. Some vegetables, such as kale and carrots, can stay in the ground a while. You can preserve some vegetables with help from extension office publications or other credible sources that address flavor and safety of canned or frozen foods. Finally, I like to pick flowers still blooming and place them in a vase inside, just to make me feel better about the season ending.

preserve tomatoes basil
Tomatoes finish ripening indoors in a sunny window and basil can keep for weeks in a glass of water.

2. Clean

There is some debate about what to leave in the garden and what to throw out. You definitely want to throw out any weeds or diseased plant cuttings. Compost healthy cuttings. We even laid some carrots that were too big for our taste out on tree stumps for deer and other critters to eat. It’s personal preference to leave some debris on the ground to naturally compost in place. But if the debris hides unwanted bugs or spores, it’s not a good idea. I usually clean up most plant debris and then use straw or leaves for composting.

3. Preserve Bulbs and Seeds

Check a local gardening book or online to find out how to dig up and overwinter bulbs that can’t handle cold temperatures in your area. In zone 6B in New Mexico, we leave iris, daylily and allium bulbs or corms and should dig up gladiolas and dahlias. Usually, the bulbs just need to be kept cool and dry. You also can preserve seeds from flowers and herbs such as dill or cilantro for cooking or replanting.

red gladiola flower
These gladiola flowers added color and attracted pollinators (but were safe from deer) in our vegetable garden. I’ll dig them up soon to winter them over inside.

4. Leave Some Seeds

Not all flowering plants need fall trimming of spent seed heads. Many can make it through winter and wait for summer trims. And birds love dried up seeds on sunflowers, cosmos and other flowering annuals. Plus, by leaving the seeds on, you increase the chance that some native grasses or flowers will reseed.

Apache plume and finch
Birds love the seeds on our Apache plumes and use the bushes for cover.

5. Evaluate Plant Placement

As you clean up and assess how plants look at the end of their growing season, you can evaluate plant placement. For example, some of our green beans did not fare as well as last year. I believe the spot I planted them in this year got more late summer shade from a neighbor’s tree than I anticipated based on early summer sun. Some plants might have grown too large for their spot or get too much water from runoff. Take some notes and consult local sources so you still have time to decide whether you can move them this fall. Or plan where they’ll go in spring, especially before buying new plants!

6. Mulch

In New Mexico, we mulch for two reasons: to conserve water and cool roots in summer and to warm roots during cold winter. I typically mulch as part of fall cleanup and near the time of the first freeze. Most plants that are native and appropriate for your garden can get by without mulch, but it helps protect tender plants from hard freezes in winter. Mulching needs to be a few inches thick to insulate and to cut down on weeds.

7. Protect Plants

Some of my gladiola bulbs came back and rebloomed without being dug up. But I mulched them pretty heavily with leaves. In addition to mulching, you can put buckets around plants to help keep them warm, especially in winter wind, or to keep deer from destroying them (adding a “lid” made of chicken wire or similar material that lets in sun and moisture but not curious critters). Plants in containers that are tender or annual in your area need to come inside, We move outside containers against a south-facing wall for warmth and to protect against wind.

buck in new mexico garden
This buck was lounging in our winter garden, probably after feasting on some roses. Note the plastic buckets on a few plants behind him. Some are there to protect from trampling, some from munching.

8. Empty Containers

It’s time to empty all those containers with edibles and annuals that are dying back. You’ll need fresh potting soil next year and it’s better to store containers empty. We empty soil from our containers (unless the plant had a disease) into garden beds and large stock tank containers that need soil. You can also save potting mix in plastic sealed containers, but it should be mixed with fresh potting soil and compost when replanted in the spring.

plants on wall
Potted geraniums and succulents come back inside for winter. We’re lucky to have plenty of sunlight through our windows.

9. Amend Soil

If you have new garden beds or some that need better soil, fall is a good time to improve soil health. Adding some compost gives it a chance to break down, as does covering beds with leaves that fall from trees. And it makes the spring preparation easier. There are many ways to amend bad soil, such as planting cover crops before frost or having a soil test so you know how to better balance pH in your growing beds. But gardeners learn to tell when soil is compacted. It’s hard to go wrong adding a little organic matter in fall.

10. Enjoy Time Outside!

Fall is a favorite season for a reason. Cool nights and warm days make it hard to stay inside, even when there are few chores to do. And enjoying even the final flower blooms before frost arrives is part of the reason you work hard to make your lawn and garden look nice.

rudbeckia bloom
Some flowers bloom late in summer and into fall. The blooms on this rudbeckia are hanging in there.

Soak it all in and dream about spring, when you will feel renewed energy and enthusiasm for garden chores.