5 Ways to Protect Edibles from Critters

I don’t mind feeding birds and deer in the winter when they really need our grass, flower seeds and insects! But once we plant herbs and vegetables, it’s time for the critters to move on, or at least be selective.

Getting wildlife to move on is not so easy. If only we could post “Keep Off the Grass” or “Do Not Touch Our Tomatoes” signs. Instead, we have to deter them as best we can. Here is more info about our latest attempts, and an update on our repurposed post fence.

deer fencing
This fencing is made from old ranch posts. We hope to replace many of our metal poles with these supports.

Our vegetable garden/microfarm needs protection from hooved, underground and above-ground munchers. Here, that means deer, elk, gophers, skunks, squirrels and cottontail rabbits. It takes some work to fence out all of the pests and wildlife, but we’ve been pretty successful. My opinion is that wildlife should be able to roam freely on our place and it is up to me as the farmer/gardener to either protect plants or install plants that they don’t eat. Gophers are exceptions. They are not wildlife to me, but destructive underground rodents. If we don’t use control and deterrents, we will not have a lawn or any living plant left.

gopher mound
Example of gopher damage. Multiply it by 1,000!

Here Are Five Ways to Keep Critters Off Your Food

1. First, we surrounded our entire vegetable garden area with cattle fencing. We only went to six feet in height, but if we ever make the space larger, we realize we might have to go higher. We’ve had no attempts so far by deer (or elk) to jump the fence, although I’m sure they can. I don’t really believe in products that use sounds or scents, although I am open to ideas supported by evidence!

jack russels
Domestic critters. In some cases, you have to protect them from critters. But sometimes, they are the pests that can destroy plants.

 

dog kennel for garden fence
This kennel keeps dogs safe and confined until we let them out to run. A kit like this can work well in a garden. The gate is nice and wide and the holes small enough to keep out most critters.

2. Before we could put up the new high fence to discourage deer and elk, we had to protect roots underground. I don’t know how those little rodents dig through our soil and rock so easily, because it was not fun. We used grub hoes and a digging bar to create a trench at least 20 inches deep. We placed metal lath into the trench, and carefully overlapped each piece to leave no holes for gophers. Believe me, they will find the holes.

Metal lath runs nearly two feet below and a few inches above ground inside of the deer fence.
Metal lath runs nearly two feet below and a few inches above ground inside of the deer fence.

We also bent about three inches of the lath 90 degrees all the way along the bottom. This should help prevent going just under the metal and back up, but it remains to be seen. Along one fence, we used metal roofing material, which costs more but is solid. This was mostly to keep gophers out, but also to shore up sawdust, sand and fresh manure from our neighbor’s horse pen just next to our garden. Horse manure is a great fertilizer, but only after several months of composting. I don’t want it near our vegetables!

This is what the horse thinks of our fence. It might not look like much, but it works.
This is what the horse thinks of our fence. It might not look like much, but it works.

3. We left several inches of lath above the ground as an extra barrier. It’s possible a bunny, or especially a squirrel, could get through the holes in the cattle fence, or that a gopher would venture above ground to get around the lath. We placed the cattle fencing against the lath.

Cattle fence also works well around fruit trees. We set it no more than about a foot high, and cut, then bend, pieces in the fence for easy opening and closing.
Cattle fencing also works well around fruit trees. We set it no more than about a foot high, and cut, then bend, pieces in the fence for easy opening and closing.

4.Raised beds can provide another layer of protection. We added three new horse troughs to our garden this year, and plan to add more troughs or raised beds next year. They’re extra protection from gophers in particular, help warm soil for our short season, grow fewer weeds, and help save my old back. See how we prepped our first carrot trough here. Containers can work, as can placing metal screen or lath at the bottom or the bed.

garden fence and troughs
The fence surrounds our vegetable garden. Four cattle troughs are pegged for root crops this year to reduce temptation from underground critters.

Row covers discourage insects and little critters. I’m pretty convinced that birds gather some of our garden seeds and we definitely have evidence of snail, grasshopper and other insect damage to seedlings each year. So I’ll use hoops, rocks, buckets, PVC, whatever I can find to secure row covers around seedlings, even those that already have their double fencing layer of protection.

attractive fence and trellis
Fences can be attractive and functional, if you have the money. We loved this fence/trellis/arbor we saw in a Pasadena back yard last fall.

If you put buckets around vegetables, be sure to remove them as soon as the weather warms and the plant seems sturdy, especially if the bucket seems to be restricting stem growth at all. Remove row covers as soon as plants flower so the good guys can do their job pollinating. When putting up deer fencing, be sure to think about how high they can reach from their hind legs and how high off the ground to start your fence. We have had several fawns get into our ranch post fence this winter, but it seems to have kept out adult deer.

Growing Edibles: Keep it Simple for Success

As you plan for 2016 gardening and home budgets, you might be considering growing edibles on your patio, in your backyard or as part of a community garden. If you feel daunted by the prospect of first-time-gardening or expansion, keep it simple.

Locally grown food typically is better for you and more sustainable, whether you get the food from your own garden or a local community-supported agriculture (CSA) or Farmers’ Market. You can turn your kids on to healthier food choices when they become involved in growing and harvesting the food.

kitchen garden food
There’s nothing fresher than food from your own yard or a local grower. We harvested all of this in one morning.

Grocery store produce travels an average of 1,300 miles from farm to store shelf. I don’t see how it could possible be fresher, more nutritious or more sustainable than produce that travels 10 yards from your garden to your kitchen. It’s easy to grow your own food; here are five ways to keep your edible garden simple, fun and effective.

Our green beans have much more flavor and snap than grocery store beans.
Our green beans have much more flavor and snap than grocery store beans.

Be selective. If you’re a seasoned gardener or a foodie, it’s tempting to grow nearly every herb or vegetable that you typically buy. But unless you’re expanding last year’s garden or have lots of help and land, grow a few selected plants, at least the first year. The best way to decide which food to grow? Start with favorites for your family; you can even let every family member choose one vegetable he or she loves the most. That helps ease waste and makes it more fun. Other considerations are climate and growing season, and what’s available (or in our case, unavailable), fresh and affordable at local stores. Leave it to local farmers to supplement your stash by learning what’s typically available at stands and Farmers’ Markets.

You can grow one or two tomato plants in large containers on your patio. This pot includes some marigold and basil. It provided excellent cocktail tomatoes.
You can grow one or two tomato plants in large containers on your patio. This pot includes some marigold and basil. It provided excellent cocktail tomatoes.

Start seeds or buy plants. Starting seeds is less expensive, or at least the seeds themselves cost less than plants. But if this is your first foray into a kitchen garden, be sure to consider the costs of raising healthy seedlings. You’ll need containers, potting material, and possibly heat mats and grow lights. Of course, you can start some plants directly in the ground or container once it warms up, so practice on one that’s easy to grow or fits well into your growing season length. Maybe it’s easier to buy starter plants (and support local nurseries) instead of growing indoor seedlings. Expand into seed starting next year once you learn and have success.

grow lights on seedlings
Seeds need warmth and light to grow. You can repurpose or recycle containers, but you’ll likely need grow lights and heat mats. Photo courtesy of the National Garden Bureau.

Check production to avoid waste. Although yields from plants can vary according to variety, zone and how the weather cooperates each year, you can estimate how many tomatoes you’ll likely harvest, for instance. Cautious people like me tend to overplant, worrying that one of the seedlings won’t make it and I’ll have too few of a selection. Be realistic and thin seedlings to control the yield. Seed catalogs are excellent sources of average yield, and this checklist from Bonnie Plants is a terrific start. And a caution: zucchini is easy to grow, and 7 to 10 pounds doesn’t sound like a lot of zucchini. But it is.

Were trying yellow summer squash this year instead of zucchini. Image courtesy of HomeFarmer.com
Were trying summer squash this year instead of zucchini. Image courtesy of HomeFarmer.com

Keep sustainability in mind. Choosing the food you and your family like the best and keeping quantity down avoids waste of water, time and other resources. By growing only what you need, you supplement what’s commercially available and waste little. Using organic practices and spending as much time with your plants as possible can keep the plants healthy. This means preparing containers and gardens with plenty of organic matter and watering regularly and deeply. Healthy plants are less susceptible to disease and insects. But if a plant has problems, don’t blame yourself or throw in the towel. You only have so much control as a gardener. Get help from a friend, local master gardeners or extension agents.

Carrots need organic matter to help provide nutrition and drainage. We had great success with growing them in this trough.
Carrots need organic matter to help provide nutrition and drainage. We had great success growing them in this trough.

Share your bounty. Once you begin to harvest, if you have too much of any food, try not to waste it. Each discarded zucchini tosses up to gallons of water used to grow the plant, as well as your time and effort. One choice is to preserve extra produce if you have time and materials to do so. The only way kitchen gardening and local farming can remain sustainable is if gardeners can avoid waste. Have a plan in place to share with an eager friend or neighbor or donate extra produce to a local food pantry. Then adjust your plan for next year if you had excessive yields.

When life gives you cucumbers, make pickles!
When life gives you cucumbers, make pickles!

Finally, start small if you’ve never gardened. Choose one herb and vegetable that you can grow in a container or in an empty spot in your landscape. And spend some time volunteering at a coop farm or with a friend who has more experience so you can learn more about growing your own food.

Grape tomatoes grow among cosmos, or the other way around. And notice the bee!
Grape tomatoes grow among cosmos, or the other way around. And notice the bee!

Most of all, have fun and enjoy the experience. There are no perfect gardeners or perfect gardens. Everyone learns by trial and error. The joy comes when you bite into the rewards of your efforts!

Starting Seeds for the 2016 Garden: Patience Required

After a crazy, colder winter from El Nino that’s morphed into 60-plus degree weather this week, I’ve been so tempted to spend a few days outside on gardening tasks I know it’s too early to tackle. It doesn’t help that lots of folks on social media already are starting their seeds, or gardeners on other continents are growing vegetables and flowers!

red bud blooms
The red bud, pear tree (white in background) , and alyssum won’t even bloom for nearly seven more weeks.

Here’s the thing – those gardeners who are starting seeds now either live in a warmer zone than us or can seriously extend their seasons with greenhouses or geodesic domes. I wish they would send me one.

We’re in zone 6B, which means a last frost date around Mother’s Day (in Albuquerque, only about one zone warmer, the last date is closer to April 15). The ground often needs to warm up to successfully germinate seeds. So even though we might safely pass the frost date, a cold week or two prior to that means the ground isn’t ready.

My impatience has caused problems in past years. We received our shipment of lavender plants earlier than we thought, and just because it seemed warmer outside, I decided to get them out of their nursery containers and into the ground. The ground was too cold. And then we got a cold rain. The roots were wet on top of the cold. Although most of the lavender made it, several plants never really got established.

seedlings can get leggy with too little light
Hardening off last year’s leggy basil and tomato seedlings, along with a sage transplant.

I’ve also sowed or started seeds too early, ending up with leggy seedlings, or seeds that didn’t take in the ground. Seeds don’t cost much, but I watered some cucumber seeds for nearly two weeks before realizing it just wasn’t warm enough yet. I don’t like to waste water or time! When sowing seeds indoors, it’s typical to count back about six weeks from when you can plant, depending on how quickly the seed germinates. Poor lighting also can make seedlings leggy.

Our second wave of cucumbers really took off and produced!
Our second wave of cucumbers really took off and produced!

This year, I’m trying a few strategies to keep myself busy “gardening” without moving too soon on seeding, planting and even trimming perennials. If my strategies don’t help, I might have to ask my hubby to hide some tools and seed packets. I hope these ideas will help other gardeners who are impatient for spring:

Order seeds ahead of time. Some of the suppliers are swamped with orders right now; processing and shipping will take longer.

Once the seeds come, put them away in a dark, cool spot. Keep your seeds fresher by storing them out of the heat and sun. That’s after you’ve kissed and read the packet and planned your start date.

store and sort seeds
We store seeds on this cool, dark closet shelf. And we’re using a Seedkeeper Home Farmer kit to sort this year’s edible seeds.

Sort your seeds and plan your vegetable, herb and ornamental garden layouts or new plantings. Count backward from planting time to account for average germination time, and include a week or two to harden seedlings off before planting.

If starting seeds inside, find a warm, light place to place your trays. If possible, purchase both a heat mat and a quality set of grow lights. The warmth helps seeds germinate and is especially important for New Mexico gardeners; chile pepper seedlings need warmth as much as light. And have a plan to pot up seedlings such as tomatoes.

potting up vegetable seeds
Potting up with larger containers or soil blocks gives seedling roots more room to grow and become healthy.

Plant a few cool-temp crops. I’m planning when I can start some cool-season seedlings or crops. At least counting backward from late spring and having an earlier planting for some vegetables gives me a closer date to which I can count down. For example, you can usually plant root crops such as beets, carrots and potatoes, and many greens, as soon as the ground is workable. Just check the seed package and local master gardener or county extension materials for more detail.

arugula seedlings rock rose
Arugula seedlings in a patio container in April last year, about the time this purple rock rose bloomed.

Prep the garden. Make sure you’ve added some organic matter to soil in your vegetable garden and find a good source for compost. Fill and lay out beds if possible. Add mulches or do other hardscaping chores on warm winter days until you can begin trimming perennials.

Extend your season, or plan to do so next year. I’ll use a combination of buckets and row cover cloth to make sure some of our seeds and seedlings have plenty of warmth after they’re planted. And that’s just a preventive measure in case temps drop substantially after our last frost. Planting early crops in containers also helps; container soil warms faster than does the ground. Low tunnels and hoop houses for season extension cost less than greenhouses to build.

buckets to protect vegetable seedlings
Free five-gallon buckets with the bottoms cut out make great mini-hothouses and protect fragile seedlings from wind.

Keep plants healthy. Our south-facing windows begin to get less light as the sun moves higher in the sky in spring. Sometimes, we have to move houseplants around or give theme artificial light to keep them warm and happy. If you haven’t gotten to trimming trees that need it this year, choose a warm day to finish the task before the trees begin to bud out.

houseplants in sunny window winter
Less sun will enter these south-facing windows as spring and summer approach.

Trim roses if you have them. Roses need to be cut back closer to late winter and early spring. We have a forsythia bush, and when it blooms, I know it’s time to trim roses. Nature is the best garden timer. Gardeners like me just have to work with her…

How To Identify Monarch Butterflies

I’m as excited as anyone about supporting Monarch butterfly conservation efforts. We plan to buy several swamp milkweed plants to add to the existing trees, shrubs and flowering plants around our property.

A monarch rests on asters. Image courtesy of the National Park Service.
A monarch rests on asters. Image courtesy of the National Park Service.

I got to see the Monarchs many years ago while on a visit to Pacific Grove, Calif. I’m not sure, however, that I’ve ever spotted a Monarch in New Mexico, and a map I checked had a giant question mark for much of New Mexico and Arizona, even though our states border Mexico. Although singularly striking, Monarchs look similar to a few other butterflies. What’s more, the critical aspect of saving them requires providing habitats for the butterflies’ larvae. Enter milkweed.

A flowering milkweed plant in the pollination gardens at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum outside Tucson, Ariz.
A flowering milkweed plant in the pollination gardens at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum outside Tucson, Ariz.

Monarch life cycle

Monarch butterflies lay their eggs on milkweed plants, which also attract other pollinators. The Monarchs find milkweed even when it has finished flowering for the season. The eggs are tiny (about the size of the head of a pin), but as they take on adult form, the larvae, or caterpillars, emerge and grow rapidly.

Monarch butterfly lifescyle. Courtesy of the U.S.D.A. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/Monarch_Butterfly/biology/index.shtml
Monarch butterfly life cycle. Courtesy of the U.S.D.A. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/Monarch_Butterfly/ biology/index.shtml

Like many gardeners, I freak out a little when I see a big caterpillar on a plant. I can’t abide tomato hornworms and the damage they inflict, and we also have had branches of several small trees stripped by the io moth caterpillar. This bad boy stings and releases a poisonous substance that can irritate the skin or cause severe reactions in some people. Last summer, we found a similar greenish-yellow caterpillar on fennel plants, or what was left of them. I think I’ve identified them now with some research.

The io caterpillar is similar in color, but has a fuzzy, fluorescent look. And it stings!
The io moth caterpillar is similar in color, but has a fuzzy, fluorescent look. And it stings! Check out the stripped branches in every direction.

So, I wanted to be sure that I can easily recognize the Monarch caterpillar before trying to attract them to my yard. In fact, all gardeners who want to help the Monarchs should be able to recognize the insect in all forms. I would hate to hand-pick a Monarch caterpillar and end its life cycle! Strangely, finding quality resources to help me identify the caterpillars, and especially to share photos, did not come easy. I finally tracked down some information.

Monarch or Queen?

Although I don’t want to hurt the chances of any butterfly, I was relieved to discover that the caterpillars on the fennel were most likely Queen butterflies, not Monarchs. Queen butterfly caterpillars also feed on milkweed, and can share plants with Monarchs. The butterflies look really similar, but have a few distinctive differences.

Here's a Queen butterfly enjoying milkweed in fall at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
Here’s a Queen butterfly enjoying milkweed in fall at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Notice the white dots that extend toward the body.
Monarch wings look like stained glass designs. Image courtesy of National Park Service.
Monarch wings look like stained glass designs, and the color varies slightly throughout. Image courtesy of National Park Service.

Queen, Monarch and Viceroy butterflies have similar colors and patterns. Monarchs are a deeper orange, and the hue changes slightly throughout the wings. The best way to tell the adults apart is the location of white spots on the wings. The Queen butterfly has dots that extend into the orange areas of the wings. But Monarchs have a distinctive stained glass appearance and no dots outside the black edges of the wings. Viceroys are smaller than Monarchs and have triangular white dots under their wings.

Just to confuse matters: Here's a Viceroy adult. Courtesy of the NPS.
Just to confuse matters: Here’s a Viceroy adult. Courtesy of the NPS.

You can distinguish the Monarch caterpillar from other caterpillars by the antennae. The Queen butterfly has three sets of antennae and filaments, and the Monarch has only two – one antenna pair on the front end and a filament pair on the back end. The Queen caterpillar spots an extra set about one-third of the way down from the front. Viceroy caterpillars do not look like Monarch larvae; the Viceroy caterpillar has a brown, rough appearance.

Close-up of a Monarch caterpillar. Note two sets of protrusions, while the Queen has three.
Close-up of a Monarch caterpillar. Note two sets of protrusions, while the Queen has three. Image courtesy of NPS Photo/Alicia Lafever.

The Monarch young larva is nearly clear until it begins to eat milkweed and grow. The larval portion of the life cycle lasts about 10 to 16 days. They can become plump just before pupating, having eaten plenty of milkweed. The caterpillars move away from milkweed as they prepare to evolve to pupae.

Queen butterflies are pretty as well. This one enjoys a butterfly weed flower in Northeastern New Mexico.
Queen butterflies are pretty as well. This one enjoys a butterfly weed flower in Northeastern New Mexico.

Check the Resources page for excellent pages and videos on identifying and protecting Monarchs. Happy hunting and pollinating!

Book Review: The Market Gardener

I can’t remember now where I saw the post or news story that led me to Jean-Martin Fortier’s “The Market Gardener” (New Society Publishers, 2014). But I recall that the timing was perfect for us. We’re considering expanding our garden and using a small portion of our acreage to launch some small-scale organic farming to provide local fresh food.

book review of The Market Gardener
This is a great book to encourage people to try small farming or just help them find resources.

Fortier’s book is an excellent guide for anyone considering a small-scale organic farming operation. Even though his location and the circumstances surrounding Les Jardins de la Grelinette in Quebec are quite different from ours, there are some things all start-up operations must consider, and certainly challenges all gardeners and growers face!

What I found most helpful about the book is that the author was willing to share so much practical detail. He provides as much useful information about his biointensive approach as he does about timing of crops and layout of the farm. Even more helpful for us, Fortier offers tips for saving money, resources for buying tools and how he keeps records. He also reveals which crops have been most profitable for the farm and has a brief section covering specifics about the crops La Grelinette grows.

The book is full of charts and illustrations; the author basically shares the farm's records with readers.
The book is full of charts and illustrations; the author shares the farm’s records with readers.

For those looking to buy land and set up a new small farm operation, Fortier even discusses how to look for the best small acreage and how to lay out gardens and buildings. And he shares European techniques for weeding, as well as how he and his wife use green manure, cover crops and organic matter to replenish soil nutrients.

There are few drawbacks to this book for anyone like us exploring the idea of small organic farming. One is that I would have enjoyed seeing some actual photos of the farm and techniques. Having said that, the book has some excellent illustrations. In addition, I didn’t receive the book, which I ordered directly from themarketgardener.com, after a few weeks. I think the sellers were overwhelmed by publicity back in August when we ordered the book. But the reason I didn’t receive my copy was that my order was flagged – and this is a common problem with our address (and a long story). I heard back from someone within 24 hours of sending an e-mail inquiry. They not only responded, but more than made it right by providing me with a free, immediate electronic version of the book!

I like having both a hard copy and electronic version of the book.
I like having both a hard copy and electronic version of the book.

As with any garden or farm book, you have to weigh the information against your own zone or climate, soil and other factors that differ from those of the author.  But when an author gives so freely of practical, hard-earned advice, it’s so much easier. After both my husband and I have read the entire book, our copy already is dog-eared and marked up. I’m glad I have the electronic version now, so I can go back and search words to find advice we’ve discussed but might not have marked.

If you have an aspiring microfarmer on your gift list, I'm just sayin'...
If you have an aspiring microfarmer on your gift list, I’m just sayin’…

I highly recommend Fortier’s “The Market Gardener” as a practical guide for small local farmers, or anyone wanting to learn more about organic and microfarming.

Note: Neither Fortier nor the publisher asked me to write a review, nor did they provide the book for free (other than the complimentary PDF to make up for the late mailing). I wrote the review on my own.

Use These Tips to Overwinter Rosemary Outside

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is the perfect low-water herb, and for that matter a perfect xeric ornamental. This year, we have two we keep as ornamentals and allow to bloom, and two for culinary use in containers, because I have a hoarder-like fear of running out of rosemary.

rosemary bloom
It’s so pretty to look at, smells wonderful, tastes delicious, and thrives in dry climates. Why not have rosemary all year long?

I understand that rosemary (and lavender, my other favorite low-water herb) can be somewhat difficult to grow in wetter climates. Well, let us desert dwellers have something, OK? We can’t in all good consciousness, or with much success, have tropical bloomers. And even having more than one hybrid rose seems wrong in areas with so little annual rainfall.

rosemary in container
This year’s back-up rosemary plant, placed into a container, is now outside on our south-facing patio. It’s doing well after several nights below freezing.

That’s exactly why rosemary does so well here. Once established, the plant thrives with less water. Depending on the variety, rosemary is hardy in zones 8 through 10. A variety called R. officinalis ‘Arp” is hardy to zone 6, however, and to zone 5 with some effort from the home gardener.

And I mean just a little effort. It’s generally easier to overwinter rosemary outside than indoors. Here are a few ways to push the zone a bit on rosemary, and my tip for keeping rosemary (and lavender) healthy through winter.

  • Plant your rosemary in full sun if possible, especially considering the sun’s winter path.
  • Use rocks or a wall to reflect heat in winter and help keep your rosemary warm as temperatures drop. You can also add some gravel mulch, as long as it doesn’t enclose the plant and retain water.
  • Use a container for rosemary and move the container to a protected, warm location (even though it’s still outdoors). I have one container on the southwest side of my patio for easy access and another against a southern wall that gets full sun all day in the winter.
  • Harvest! Harvest some rosemary for culinary use well before the first frost so that the plant is healthy and not blooming. Or if your plant is ornamental, a few blooms are fine, as long as you avoid pruning, and especially cutting into woody stems, anytime from four weeks before the first frost until early spring.
  • Water sparingly all year, but especially in winter when the plant dries more slowly. Wet feet cause root rot on rosemary and lavender plants.
Trailing rosemary
This is one, not two, trailing rosemary plants. The big gap in the center is where Tim had to trim out dead, black branches ruined by a heavy snow in Albuquerque one winter. We had to save this plant because it was so pretty and attracted loads of bees, and we learned our lesson about brushing snow off of rosemary.

And here’s my best tip for keeping rosemary happy and healthy in the winter! You know when you can’t wait to get outside and play after a snowfall? You take the kids, the dogs, the camera, your companion of choice…outside to enjoy the snow. Stop for a second and head straight for your rosemary in the garden or container. Carefully brush as much snow off of the plant as you can, especially over the center, main branches. We nearly lost a beautiful trailing rosemary bush several years ago before I knew how important it was to do this. The slow melting of snow amounts to setting your drip hose to run on the rosemary for days. It can destroy part or all of the plant.

This week, I used my bare hand (until I couldn’t feel my fingers) and then a soft broom to brush off all of my rosemary and lavender plants while the snow was still flaky. And yes, I pulled out my camera…

snow on rosemary plant in New Mexico
This is not a ton of snow, but is enough that the slow dripping from melting could damage some of the branches or roots of this rosemary plant.

Weeding Through Social Media: Part 2

Earlier this week, I wrote a post on how to be discerning when using social media for gardening tips. A great example just occurred today before I got this post up and running. The National Wildlife Federation, which can have some great advice about attracting wildlife to your garden, for example, posted a story about not raking up leaves. It went viral, and why not?  I mean, who wouldn’t love advice that says you can do less work and help improve the butterfly population?

fallen leaves
Leaves are everywhere, and so is gardening advice.

I had some doubts when I saw the NWF Tweet, because although I know a layer of leaves can help butterflies overwinter, it seemed logical that a leaf layer also helps bad insects overwinter. It’s not like I can go out there and have a conversation with the leaves or pick through the pupae! But a fellow garden writer really had her doubts, especially since when quoted by media, the original post had been taken out of context. Better advice, in addition to that mentioned by Susan Harris, is to repurpose fallen leaves as appropriate. Here’s an article from Bren Haas I retweeted that proposes some good ideas.

And below are some Do’s and Don’ts that I follow, or suggest for gardeners, when using the web and social media for gardening tips, along with some resources.

Do’s:

Understand search results. If you’re not web savvy, learn to recognize the difference between ads and content ranking when searching. Sometimes, maybe you want the ad (such as when you’re looking for your favorite nursery or catalog). Most of the time, however, it’s best to scroll down to the official website or information, not ads. Look beyond the description to the web address below and learn more about the source before clicking. Bookmark (or save to Favorites) sites you might need again.

Verify before following back. Although etiquette “dictates” that you follow back when someone follows you on social media, it’s OK to use some discrimination. When choosing to follow a Pinner or Twitter user, make a quick review of the person or company. Some users are actually empty, having never really pinned, for instance. Some follow indiscriminately to push products and services. And once, I got into a discussion with a Twitter user who is well known in his field, but who follows no one on Twitter but himself/his publication. I’m not going to follow someone who doesn’t take the time to share and learn from others.

red chile ristras
For growing and cooking with red chile, I’ll stick to mostly experts from the Southwest. Image from the National Park Service.

Always check “About” pages on blogs and other websites. A sure sign of a “fake” site to me is one that has no About page or simply restates the home page’s purpose. Any blogger or commercial site should give you some background and reveal a little information about the individual, the company or organization and why they’re qualified to talk about gardening. I look at experience and training, but the details or credentials are less important to me than the fact that the site’s authors are willing to reveal the information. For example, anyone who has been farming organically for 10 years can certainly give me advice for improving my organic vegetable garden. Typically, when researching blog posts, I turn to people with equal or more training and experience than me. But a site with no information signals the unknown, and most likely a content farm or mill or repurposed, even possibly poorly researched or plagiarized, information. Content farms hire lots of freelancers, often inexperienced ones, and pay them poorly to crank out content that ranks well in search engines.

Look for local experts for plant information in particular. If I want deer-resistant plants, for example, I also want to know which ones do best in my zone and with little to no water. Local and regional sources are particularly important when it comes to saving water and xeric planting. Water is not an issue in every part of the country; many xeric plants couldn’t survive in climates with 35 inches of rain a year, and most xeric gardening and landscaping experts live in more arid zones. The same goes for many advice articles, and especially infographics. Most gardening publications and social media posts have an Eastern or Southeastern focus; more people live, garden and publish there. If you run across a planting schedule, be sure to check those dates against your zone or look for one from a local source.

I often verify online information against a combination of garden books from favorite local authors, master gardeners and our state extension office.

gardening books
And though social media and websites are convenient and full of information, you can’t beat some of your go-to local experts in print for gardening insight.

Don’ts:

Don’t believe everything you read. That’s especially true now on Pinterest and some blogs. The more sponsored content takes over social media, the more likely it proliferates in pins and posts. There is plenty of accurate information out there. Use the same tips above to check out sources or double-check information before running with it. Having said that, there are some really clever people out there, so give them a chance once you’ve vetted their validity and relevance. And the leaf example I cited today shows how a credible site such as NWF or sources citing it, should be verified when it comes to gardening advice. If you want to know what kind of food to put in your winter bird feeder, then by all means, count NWF at the top of your list.

Don’t fall for cheesy graphics. This is the latest trend to get social media users to click through. Well-designed graphics can be a sign of a quality site, but many of the new graphic trends remind me of the early days of desktop publishing. Sadly, anyone who could run the software would design flyers, newsletters and other visual materials filled with screaming colors and multiple fonts. I know I am losing this battle as Pinterest and even Twitter look more like scrolling billboards every day. Content is what matters, not screaming headlines. Give a pin or post a chance because of the author and potential relevance.

Don’t fall for sponsored content. When you evaluate sources, check to see whether authorship is assigned and attributed to a particular page or article you find online. I try to only retweet articles from trusted publications and bloggers. There is no reason for an “anonymous” post to appear on a gardening topic; only rely on attributed material. A blogger who reviews a product should reveal that it was provided for free in exchange for the review and should provide a balanced review.

Helpful Resources

I’m sure some will disagree with me on a few of my tips, and social media is a moving target. But for quality information, simply be a discerning user. It’s really quite simple. Here are a few ideas for quality sites; my Resources page has several listed by topic.

Local cooperative extension offices Each state has an extension office, which not only helps farmers and ranchers, but home gardeners as well. Most states also have county extension offices.

Master gardeners. Master gardener programs typically are run by extension programs as well and can be your source for local programs. And master gardeners usually volunteer to answer questions via hotlines, libraries or their websites.

National gardening societies and organizations. If I’m having problems with an orchid or writing for a client about roses, I tend to look for help from national societies whose members are experts on these plants. Most have helpful pages or publications for home gardeners.

Garden bloggers. The National Garden Bureau is a helpful resource, and maintains a list of garden bloggers and other links. Look for garden writers who specialize in your area of interest or concern, or your region. And check out Garden Rant, the source that called out the bad leaf advice I mentioned at the top of this post.

And, in case you want to see who I follow on social media, link to me on Twitter from my feed to the right of this post, or to my Instagram and Pinterest accounts from my Fun Stuff page.

Gardening in a Hostile Environment: Never Give Up

In the past week, I’ve heard several friends or family members say that they can’t grow plants, that they kill everything they try to grow, etc. I’m here to tell you that every gardener has killed a plant. And if there is anyone out there who can prove otherwise, I’ll send them a free succulent. We have plenty to spare. Just don’t tell my husband.

cactus
Even succulents can be hard to grow if they lack sun or receive too much water. But my husband Tim has a knack for growing them. This is only a small sample, with a few of my ornamentals mixed in.

The seasoned gardener will blame the deer that ate/trampled the day lilies or the bad, strange weather the past year (read nearly any of my blog posts) or grasshoppers and other insects that brought damage and dreaded disease. You know, these seasoned gardeners aren’t really lying. The truth is that all anyone can do is start with the healthiest plant possible, place it in the best possible environment and care for it according to the plant’s needs and the environment in which it lives. If it doesn’t work, we learn from it and try again, sometimes with another plant or another place. And if you get really fed up, you can always switch environments!

view of rock garden and clouds
You can’t have it all. Crazy weather seems to accompany gorgeous views, right?

We happen to love our environment, and I know there are many more hostile than ours. No matter where you live and grow, gardening is trial and error. And like any hobby or DIY project, preparation and a little upfront learning can increase your chance of success, even in a hostile setting. Here are a few problems we face in ours, along with tips to keep from giving up.

Drought and water use. When you “go with the flow,” so to speak in low-water gardening, you take what nature delivers. That means supplementing new plantings with water until they’re established, even watering xeric plants more than suggested for the first year or so. We use rainwater as much as possible, and since our established plants generally need little to no irrigation, we can use well water sparingly as needed. A bigger problem can be too much water. And I think new gardeners, or at least gardeners adjusting to growing xeric plants, tend to overwater drought-tolerant plants for the duration. It’s also instinct to assume when a plant wilts that it needs water, when the cause might be something else. Sometimes, Mother Nature overwaters and having healthy plants helps them ride out the storm.

Never Give-up Tips: Avoid the temptation to overwater.  Make sure low-water plants get a good start, especially by planting them in well-draining soil with plenty of organic matter.

gravel mulch to warm lavender
The gravel mulch near our lavender is meant to reflect heat to warm the plants and to control weeds. We’re trying to keep it away from the base of the plants, though, so it doesn’t restrict their growth or cause wet, soggy roots.

Climate. Nature also can deliver water or temperature in strange patterns. This year, we had more than a week of clouds, cool temperatures and wet days. Our plants got confused, and sometimes climate conditions that are unnatural to native plants can cause stress and disease. At other times, it keeps them blooming later than normal, which is a good thing. Using microclimates, even temporary ones, can help plants weather the goofy weather. For example, I planted my chile and bell peppers at the same time as last year, but the weather was cooler than normal right after I planted. I’ll admit that our seedlings were a little weak, too, so that’s a lesson learned. But I should have put something over or around them to warm them up a notch. A few of them never thrived.

Never Give-up Tips: Know your plants’ zones and sun requirements and follow them when planting, remembering that trees leaf out and grow! And try an edible or annual in a different spot next year or move an established perennial.

Gophers. I’ll include all underground critters, such as moles, prairie dogs and ground squirrels in this one. For us, gophers rank up there as enemy no. 1. You can’t even say they’re cute, because for one, you really never see them. They do their damage mostly at night and I have only seen one pop up as it worked to open a hole in our brand new lavender bed, after chewing up the roots of one of the brand new lavender plants, of course. Some will say they improve the soil. I say they destroy plants. Our tally in a few years includes an Echinacea, a primrose, an ornamental grass, two lavender plants and at least one dwarf apple tree. The newer and more vulnerable the plant, the more they seem to love it.

Never Give-up Tips: The only method that works for keeping gophers away from a vegetable or ornamental garden is burying metal barriers 24 inches down to surround the entire garden or using raised beds such as metal troughs. Of course, container gardening also works. As for control, that’s a post, or two, or three, of its own.

gopher damage in rock garden
We’ve had gophers come through several spots in our rock walls. The walls hold up to deer jumping on them and are nearly four feet high, but gophers…

Deer. Deer are cute and we try to work with them. Our property has only pipe fencing, which the deer and elk can jump over or wind their way through easily. Many of our ornamental plants are unattractive to deer, and we fence those that they enjoy munching on, at least until the plants are large enough to survive the meal. We’ve learned the hard way on a few plants. For example, I didn’t know that deer enjoy the flavor of a spineless prickly pear cactus until we lost an entire pad! They were nice enough to just step on the other one. Deer do draw the line at spiny prickly pear in case you’re wondering.

Never Give-up Tips: It’s easy to search online for lists of plants that deer prefer or avoid, and fencing really is the only deterrent that works. I have used soap shavings (strong-smelling ones) hanging around my unfenced tomato plants with some success, but only in summer when they have a buffet of choices.

deer in ornamental xeric garden
In winter and early spring, deer come right up near the patio, within feet of the house. They’ll eat and step on plenty of plants when food is scarce.

Insects. I don’t much care for bugs, and am learning all I can about the bad ones. We use integrated pest management, because the last thing we want to do is kill bees, wasps, ladybugs and other beneficial insects. Our fruit-set rates were incredible for this summer’s vegetables, and I thank our pollinators. But our plants and our feet are under constant attack. Ants have taken over our orchard and we caught some carrying off fall carrot seeds the other day. This is a problem we have to work on, but also accept as part of gardening. And we will continue to do what we can to attract pollinators.

Never Give-up Tips: Hand-pick known criminals such as tomato hornworms or cucumber beetles after you’ve identified them. And spray plants with water for offenders such as aphids. Spraying pesticides, even organic ones, can kill beneficial insects that help control the bad bugs. We plan to add row-cover cloth over more seedlings this year until the plants flower to help control grasshoppers and other bugs.

io moth caterpillar
This might look similar to a monarch caterpillar, but it’s not. For one, it stings and releases a toxin. Second, it never travels alone. We have had invasions now on three different types of trees, where they party until they strip entire branches unless Tim handpicks them. That’s where he learned firsthand about the sting. We think they are io moth caterpillars.

Weeds. It’s so hard to pick a favorite problem! Or least favorite, I should say. With four acres and a couple of garden areas, we seem to spend more time dealing with weeds than growing. I’m not of the mindset that weeds are good, because I think they harbor pests and critters if left to their own devices. Many also compete for water resources. We are relaxing our rules a bit, however, having decided which invasive plants we can take out of the weed column and which to leave there. And since we know we can’t remove them from every spot, we’re eliminating weeds where we can and turning our attention to prevention.

Never Give-up Tips: Use organic practices such as thick mulch and plastic or tarps in vegetable garden prep to block sun and water from weeds and thus prevent them. Hand-pull or hoe around plants to prevent weeds such as field bindweed from choking plants or stealing their water. Just because a thistle has a pretty flower doesn’t mean you should let it go to seed if it’s invasive in your region.

wild gaura growing in gopher mound
Man, I didn’t even get into rocks. Gophers love to dig up rocks and weed seeds. Here, a wild gaura grows from a gopher mound, surrounded by several other weeds and some grass. Survival of the native!

Waste Not: When Your Harvest Overwhelms You

The best part of growing your own edibles is harvesting fresh, healthy food and eating it right away. But what happens if you have a green thumb, great weather or go on vacation? I can’t stand to throw out a single tomato, and I think friends are running for fear I will hand them another zucchini.

zucchini harvest
Look! Even my dog is running from zucchini. I managed to give away or use all of this. I am not responsible for the actions of the receivers. And I learned my lesson about keeping up or cutting back.

But I know there are people who could use the fresh vegetables that I grow, especially in our area. Apparently, food waste is a bigger problem than a few overripe tomatoes from my garden. Tons and tons of produce are left unharvested in fields each year because of mechanical harvesting techniques, how hand harvesters are paid, or because the public demands perfect looking produce.

The last one is part of the reason why so many fruits and vegetables are genetically modified. Consumers are more likely to choose the shiniest apples and the brightest orange carrots, regardless of whether those choices offer the highest nutrition or flavor. I’m here to tell you that anything I’ve grown tastes better than anything I’ve ever purchased. And unless it has evidence of disease or infestation, I’ll eat it because I know where it came from!

green bean inspection
None of these green beans would pass muster in a store. The ones on the left were missed and likely are tough. But they can be frozen separately with other large beans for soups or stews. The middle beans just got caught on a fence or stalk. I can eat those. Something else has eaten on that last one, so I won’t.

Having said that, I’m guilty of choosing the nicest looking specimens when I give any of my harvest to friends or neighbors. End Food Waste Now has started a fun campaign on Twitter encouraging people to support ugly fruits and vegetables and to cut the 20 to 40 percent of global produce waste.

I’ve got a few entries below…

funny looking tomatoes
Kiss my…tomato! These are both edible, although they would never make it to a produce bin.
carrots
Here’s our dancing carrot, or rather two carrots, likely because I didn’t thin enough.

On a more serious note, I wanted to find out what to do with some of my extra vegetables, knowing there must be people in my rural community who might appreciate them. End Food Waste points visitors to AmpleHarvest.org, which links gardeners and food pantries around the country. I was surprised to find several nearby in my fairly obscure ZIP code.

Gardeners who want to take it a step further and help the nearly 36 million American households where folks have substandard diets and often seek emergency food from pantries and other organizations can join Plant a Row for the Hungry. The program from the Garden Writers Association Foundation encourages community and individual gardeners to plant one extra row each season to donate to local soup kitchens or food pantries.

So, if you have plenty of space, but especially, more harvest from your garden than you can eat, consider donating to those less fortunate. And although home-grown produce lasts longer than store-bought produce, storing fruits and vegetables properly leads to less waste.

Some People Learn the Hard Way: Too Much of a Good Thing

Gardening is fun. Planting is fun, and looking at flowers is really fun. Harvesting what you and the rain worked so hard together to grow – priceless. Trimming, thinning and getting rid of plants is far from fun.

I have learned the hard way this year, however, that I have to curb my enthusiasm. Too much of a good thing can go bad – quickly. And it’s not just because I’m busy working and trying to keep the garden up. I’m talking about some imbalances that occur in the garden when you plan and plant, and then nature takes over.

Mexican hats reseed
The Mexican hat is a prolific reseeder here in New Mexico. It’s a fun annual, but we have more than we need.

Below are a few lessons learned about having too much of a good thing that I hope will help beginners or other overenthusiasts. First, my disclaimers, caveats, poor excuses:

  1. Our place is big.
  2. This is only our third summer here, and we are still trying to get the weeds and gophers under control.
  3. Climates here are extreme, usually dry, with temperature ranges of more than 40 degrees in one day and a strange pattern this year in early summer.
  4. Did I already say that gardening is fun?

Planting too many of the same species hosts pests

First of all, I have written in previous posts about how filling in with annuals can add inexpensive color to your garden. Seeds cost little, and in our garden, they’re free! That brings me to another problem I have pondered several times – the line between weed and wildflower. We’ve got gaillardia, (blanket flowers), Ratibidia columnifera (Mexican hats) and cosmos growing as volunteers all over our garden. There are a few other annuals, but these three amigos would take over if we’d let them. And I almost did. I couldn’t bring myself to destroy a “free” plant. After all, it added color to the garden with no water. Tim drew the line on any growing in the walkway. I could accept that. But I should have done a better job of thinning the plants. The Mexican hats were hosts to hundreds of cucumber beetles. And I would go to deadhead the gaillardia (which could take valuable time away from my favorite activity – weeding) and find an entire stalk covered with flea beetles. These tiny black insects have been damaging my tomato plants.

flea beetle damage to tomato plant
I’m pretty sure this is a flea beetle and damage from it. This tomato is in a container about 15 feet from all those flowers. So far, the damage is tolerable.

Lesson learned: I can keep and love each of these annuals, but I need to thin them early on. Having a few host plants for the bugs might keep them off of young tomatoes, since the annuals come out earlier. But having 20 gaillardia plants is like putting up a billboard on the freeway advertising free flea beetle lodging. Variety is healthier and prettier.

Too much of a good thing robs resources

It’s important to thin seedlings in a vegetable garden, and equally important to space plantings in a xeric garden. When you plant too closely together or let annuals (or perennials that have not been trimmed enough) grow too closely together, a few things happen.  First and foremost, the plants get too little air circulation. I imagine this is more of an issue in some climates than others, or plants native to humid climates can take wet leaves and roots better than plants native to places like New Mexico. But I know most of our xeric plants can’t take it. If we get rains late in the day combined with clouds and cool evening temperatures, which is typical of the high desert, the leaves don’t dry off.

If there is little air circulation, this can increase risk of bacterial and fungal diseases in plants. Powdery mildew, which is characterized by the white or gray patches on leaves that resemble talcum powder, can occur even without rain. High humidity in typically warm, dry climates can cause the disease if plants have little to no air circulation. A plant might grow so large that it shades another plant, Even worse, if plants are too close together. one plant might sneak drinks from the other, or require more water, causing your truly xeric plant near it to have poor health or die from too much water!

Lesson learned: Thin, thin, thin! And no matter how small a seedling or new plant from the nursery appears, take time to learn its mature size. Then consider that in its new surroundings, including the mature size of the plants around it. I think I am going to strap a measuring tape to my jeans next spring.

vegetables mature
Can you spot where the melon ends, the tomato begins, the cucumber ends, the pepper begins… The good news is that there is no row on one side and plenty of space on the other, so at least these plants get air from two directions. Better planning next year.

Hedging your bets can be a lot of work

I planted 11 tomato plants. The first step is admitting you have a problem. Now, I want some credit for hedging my bets, because I had to pull up a few of the tomatoes. Some were not very strong seedlings, but I gave them a try. In retrospect, I probably should have thrown out those seedlings. Weak plants attract predators, and that’s a big lesson from all of this. I feel really badly about wasting the water to try to get them going. Our spring weather likely didn’t help (see “disclaimers” above), but I also might have lost some to poor thinning of suckers or trimming of bottom branches, which provided an on-ramp for snails and bugs. Maybe it’s the nurturer in me, but it’s fun to care for the tomatoes that have made it and to give away the fruit we can’t eat. Other plants are easier to put away for winter, including basil, beans and cucumbers.

Still, I need to plan more carefully next year. Nearly all of the water has come from the sky, including what we’ve harvested. And I’ve used a drip system for much of the well water used. But I’ll approach the vegetable garden plan more carefully next year, unless I find a way to make money growing tomatoes. If I decide to do that, I’ll have to pull up most of those blanket flowers…

too many blanket flowers
Aren’t these blanket flowers pretty? Notice two different color combinations. But having this much together (and more in other areas) is a little too inviting for bad bugs, and I have lots of plant variety for bees.

Lesson learned: Take the next six months to plan, or at least to forget how much time you spent trying to get it right.

And, as always, I want to reiterate this point: There are no dumb gardeners, and I hate to see lists and posts with titles such as “Dumb Gardening Mistakes”. I have seen careless moves or gardeners, but that’s different. If you try something and fail with your best effort, at least you tried. Research, learn from your mistake and try again!