Harden Off Seedlings Before Planting

When you head out to your garden on a chilly morning, it takes you some time to acclimate to the weather. After you’ve done some digging or weeding for 15 minutes or so, you might peel off a layer of clothing as your body warms up. The outside temperature probably didn’t change much in 15 minutes, but your body adapted to your surroundings and even toughened up to take them as your blood pumped into muscles and your heart rate rose.

tomato seedling
Short-season tomato seedling growing in starter soil.

Your tomato and other vegetable and herb seedlings need the same sort of acclimation before you take them from under your grow light, from a greenhouse, or from the comfort of their commercial nursery home. Give them a little bit of time to adapt to their new outside location. It’s called “hardening off,” and here are a few tips:

  • Take a minimum of a few days when you can, and ideally up to a week, to harden off seedlings. Count backward from your planting date – usually your average last day of frost – and start hardening off seedlings about eight days before that date.
  • Ease your plants into their new environment. That means it’s not a good idea to take them from a greenhouse from dawn to dusk the first day. Start with a few hours of outdoor time and gradually increase it each day. Cut the time short if the wind really picks up.
  • Speaking of wind – and sun – keep your plants in a fairly protected location. Start by putting them out mostly shade the first day and moving them every few days to gradually increase their sun exposure. You may need to protect them from critters, too, so consider local bunnies or other munchers if they often visit the area where you set out the seedlings and place them up on a table.
Seedlings and cuttings hardening off
Tomato seedlings and sage cutting hardening off under the shade of a glass patio table. The table offers some shade and wind protection.
  • Gradually increase time spent out late in the day as well. Your plants need to learn to spend the night outside, but don’t leave them out the first few nights. And be sure to bring them inside if there is any chance of freeze. On the first night out, try to put them in a well-protected location where they won’t get too much wind and receive a little warmth from your home or a south-facing wall.

Finally, cut back on watering as you begin hardening off the plants. They also need to learn to toughen up before transplanting. Of course, once you plant them, water a little extra until established, then water consistently per the plant’s needs.

bell pepper seedling
Bell pepper seedlings need to harden off and toughen up before the soil and daytime temperatures are hot enough for us to plant them.

Smart Xeric Strategy: Grow Edible Plants

It’s a trend that was a long time in coming, but edible landscaping is here to stay, and it can be a great xeric landscaping strategy. More than 80 percent of Americans say they have grown edibles, but nearly one-fourth are concerned about irrigation, so incorporating edibles into the garden landscape just makes sense!

I plan to increase some of the space in our rock garden devoted to edibles this year. We already have some great xeric herbs and I love the blooms of our Western sand cherry, which I hope will bear fruit this year. We also get a few rose hips from our native (Fendler) roses.

Apple tree and red bud in full bloom
The red bud looks edible, but only at the bird feeder! The rose bush on the left leaves hips in the late fall. And if that apple tree by the river makes as many apples as it has blooms, we’ll be heading to the farmers’ market!

Use space and save money

Adding a few edibles means we use some of the space and relatively good soil that’s near our kitchen and outdoor dining spaces for a few more herbs and vegetables. I’ll supplement our fenced vegetable garden and try to select critter-proof plants or hope the area is close enough to our patio to shy them away.

Like me, you might want to grow your own edibles for freshness and cost savings. In particular, herbs are much less expensive when grown from seed or cuttings than when you buy them in a store. I’ve used fresh and dried ones from our rock garden all year long. But so many edible plants also add visual interest. I don’t have to tell you how gorgeous lavender can get. And if not cut, rosemary and sage also produce lavender-colored blooms.

Grow xeric herbs

Then, there is the scent. I can hardly walk by thyme or lavender without rubbing my fingers on the leaves. Here’s a list of low-water herbs to add to your garden landscape:

Sage, thyme, rosemary, and lavender (which can be used to flavor dishes or for many aromatic uses). Basil uses a little more water, but recovers well if neglected, as long as you keep it in well-draining soil. Oregano also needs only occasional watering, and though dill can be particular about soil, it also does well with little water. Read more about low-water herbs in my March post.

Add edible shade trees

If you’re looking for a shade tree, why not plant a fruit or nut tree that is native to your region? Instead of watering for the sake of leaves and summer shade, you can water for some juicy apples or peaches.

Chinese apricot tree for edible shade
No shade needed on this spring day, but in summer, we rest from outdoor chores under this established Chinese apricot tree. It was loaded with fruit about three years ago.

We just ordered a few bare-root trees from the Upper Hondo Soil and Water Conservation District. We’ve already planted a pinon tree. Sure, it will be a long time until it rewards us with pine nuts, and we’ll probably always fight the wildlife for them, but it’s a fast-growing native tree in New Mexico and I’m happy to try for a few delicious nuts to add to some basil for pesto! On the way soon are a serviceberry and cherry. The serviceberry is sure to feed the birds, if not us. And our established currant is in full bloom.

currant bush
This low-water currant provides year-round color and edible berries for wildlife and humans.

Consider interspersing a few edibles into your garden landscape and start small. For example, fill containers with edible flowers. Artichokes add interest to the garden;  just be sure to leave those guys plenty of room. If a few of the edibles you choose take a little more water than typical for xeric plants, consider this: Farmers use even more to irrigate their crops and you use no carbon footprint to drive to the store and buy greens when you grow your own in containers or a raised bed in your own garden. Water as much as possible from a rain barrel and feel even better about your edibles!

nasturtium in old washer
Why not fill an empty container (even a salvaged washer) with edible flowers? Nasturtium look pretty in the landscape and on salads.

Also, be sure to consider where you place your edibles. Spinach and lettuce have shallow roots and need cooler, shadier conditions. But avoid adding a crop of edibles under the canopy of a tree, where they’ll compete with the tree’s roots for water. I plan to use an area of our rock garden area to grow more peppers this year, and our southern-facing rock wall serves as a perfect microclimate to add some extra warmth for tomatoes and peppers.

planting edibles in xeric gardens
We recently weeded, turned the dirt, and added mushroom compost to the rock garden soil to prep it for some edibles as soon as frost danger passes.

Low-water Use Tips To Meet Restrictions and Good Water Sense

We spend a lot of time talking about xeric plants, and recently posted some tips on low-water use for gardeners. California has implemented emergency regulations to conserve water during their drought, and the ones related to landscaping are the sort of common sense practices that xeric-minded organizations and gardeners have always touted:

  • Avoid runoff when irrigating.
  • Don’t irrigate during or 48 hours after measurable precipitation.

This post goes into more details on the restrictions, which, along with scheduled days or times of watering, are pretty common municipal regulations in drought-stricken areas.

Avoid runoff when irrigating

Runoff obviously can come from too much water. Of course, good planning of landscape, plant selection and irrigation choices upfront can prevent runoff. Correct an existing problem by first checking the area after the system runs. If you normally water while at work, do a manual run so you can test your system on the weekend. If you have runoff, study where flow occurs. If it’s down a slope, consider terracing the lawn area or welling around the tree or shrubs that you’re watering. You can also cut watering time, of course. If you’re worried about one tree or ornamental that needs more water, cut the irrigation system watering time and supplement the tree’s water every once in a while with a hose or bucket. Don’t waste all of that water irrigating concrete or pavement, and possibly weeds, just to keep one plant healthy. For a small lawn or several plants on a drip system, you can decrease watering time and increase frequency if necessary.

terraced lawn to prevent sprinkler runoff
This Albuquerque lawn has some bermuda grass, but notice the terrace to avoid runoff. Also, note the exposed drip lines being reset in the xeric garden area on lower right.

The runoff might be from a misdirected, leaky, plugged or defective head or emitter. It’s easy to turn and redirect the head so the water goes where it should. A small leak in the system can waste hundreds of gallons of water. Plugged sprinkler heads are a common cause of pooled or misdirected water. Running a stiff wire, such as a straightened paper clip, through the emitter hole can clear some debris. If the entire head is full or dirt or grass, you can turn off your system, lift and unscrew the head, soak it and use a small wire brush to clean it. Then rinse it and screw it back on.

Avoid watering a wet lawn

This should be a no-brainer, but I already ranted in my previous post about neighbors who left their automatic sprinklers on no matter the weather. My best advice is to set automatic sprinklers to “manual” and water regularly but only as needed based on weather conditions. You can set a reminder on your smartphone or other device to jog your memory if that’s a concern. But it’s sometimes more difficult to remember to override the automatic setting on the sprinkler, especially if you’re not there to do it! Otherwise, pay attention to the weather forecast each evening and override the auto setting when rain is predicted the night before so you don’t have to add the task to your busy morning schedule. You can always water a little in early evening or the next morning if the forecast is off the mark.

Of course, if you’ve switched out some or all of your turf for a xeric landscape, at least you are using less water. It also means less need for an automatic system. Most xeric plants need such infrequent watering that you’re best served by a manual irrigation system or the totally manual system of carrying a water bucket from your rain barrel only to the plants that need a little more water — and only when they need it!

raised ornamental bed bubblers
We raised part of this bed and replaced spray heads with bubblers to conserve water.

Other water-saving tips

  • Water early in the morning, especially if you live in a hot climate. Your plants take up more water before the stressful heat of the day, and if you’re using spray irrigation, less water evaporates.
  • Use drip irrigation when possible instead of sprays and sprinklers, or at least keep the spray as low as possible. Spraying water can lead to some leaf diseases, and you want most of the water to go into the plant’s roots, not into the air.
  • Well around plants, especially new plants, any plant that needs more water than others, and anything planted on a slope to trap the water.
  • Choose xeric, low-water and native plants.
  • Use mulch as appropriate to help keep plants cool and roots damp.

    welled shrubs
    Wells around shrubs at Tucson area nonprofit

Of course, it never hurts to call in a professional landscaper or other pro to get some help with your irrigation system or to better plan your lawn and garden for low-water use. For example, avoiding steep slopes in your landscape (with terraces and other strategies) can prevent water runoff, and use of microclimates can increase plant viability while decreasing water needs.

Favorite Xeric Plant: Salvia

The salvias, or sages, include a huge and versatile group of shrubs, ornamentals and herbs. But I want to focus on a few of the xeric ornamentals. Last week, I wrote about a new royal red cultivar from Plant Select. My favorite salvias have deep, red or purple flower spikes and survive in the chilly nights and dry heat of the high desert and intermountain zones.

Most salvias attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. Several varieties are perennial in cooler zones, but others work only as annuals.

Purple salvia

Purple salvia cultivars (Salvia X sylvestris) include the popular “May night” meadow sage, which has been popular since 1956. I believe that’s the type of salvia that comes up in our garden each year. Other varieties such as a new sylvestris called “Little Night” are compact bloomers with the same striking indigo blue or violet color. They usually begin blooming in spring. Cutting the flower spikes close the ground as they begin to fade can stimulate a second round of blooms. Another purple salvia called West Texas cobalt sage (Salvia reptans) grows in zone 5 through 10 and is a native of the mountains of west Texas. Its foliage is different from many salvias, resembling grass more than leaves. By early fall, spikes of deep cobalt blue flowers open and attract hummingbirds. The plant has deep roots, making it a great choice for xeric gardens.

purple salvia in xeric garden

Salvia sylvestris, with deep purple blooms all summer, is a showy xeric plant.

Cherry sage

The cherry sage or autumn sage (Salvia gregii) is a popular small shrub in Texas and New Mexico. Although labeled semi-evergreen, most of the leaves drop off during winter in zones 6 and 7. It’s drought tolerant, but produces more flowers and a bushier leaf pattern with some moderate water. Keep this bush in filtered sun for best results, and prune dead flowers throughout its growing season to enjoy more cherry-red or pink- to coral-colored blooms. Planting several together can give you an attractive two-to-three foot hedge.

cherry red sage
Cherry or autumn sage makes a great low shrub in a low-water garden.

New white-blooming salvia

Finally, here’s another reason to love salvias! It’s a new compact salvia called Summer Jewel White (Salvia coccinea) with white blooms all summer that begin earlier than most white salvias. The plant is an All-America Selections 2015 winner based on its attraction of pollinators. I love contrasting white flowers with deep reds and purples. Summer Jewel White is an annual, but it’s low enough (about 10 to 24 inches high) to plant near a May night salvia or cherry sage without blocking the other plant’s blooms.

summer jewel white salvia
Salvia Summer Jewel White is a new annual. Image courtesy of the National Garden Bureau, Inc.

Another great feature of most perennial salvias is that you can easily propagate more by separating mature plants and replanting them. We’ve had a few volunteers crop up near our mature plant that we plan to move to another area of the garden.

Don’t Be Afraid To Prune Perennials

One of my favorite spring chores is pruning ornamental bushes and shrubs to get them ready for vigorous spring growth. I’ll throw in the caveat that pruning wild rose bushes is not a favorite chore. Even with special gloves made for rose pruning, I manage to stab myself around my upper arm, legs and shoulders. These are some pretty big bushes!

My husband and I have different philosophies on how to prune. He tends to cut a lot of the plant, but does a great job of shaping trees. I tend to underprune and some of the bushes look leggy, with too little growth on the lower portions of the branches. So we try to temper each others’ approaches.

spring blooms in xeric garden
Spring means the apple tree along the river (background) blooms big. It also means time to prune. The green plant in the left foreground was almost as tall as the red bud to the right only a few weeks before.

The best approach, especially in xeric gardens, is to follow the plant’s natural growth pattern. This means avoiding the “haircut” prune, or cutting a plant straight across the top. It’s like topping trees; it makes me crazy. A haircut prune on a bush forces new growth only along the top of the plant.

For deciduous shrubs (those that lose leaves in winter and come back in spring), pruning should include thinning to make sure sun reaches bottom branches and to prevent crossing or rubbing of branches. Gradual renewal pruning involves removing dead and old branches just above ground level each year. You also can trim to shape long branches.

Rejuvenate old plants by cutting up to one-third of the oldest and tallest branches just at or above ground level before new growth starts. Here’s the thing, though: Although experts generally warn against pruning an entire plant all the way to the ground, I have done that for several established woody plants that get long and leggy and have few flowers. I’ll even do it annually with great success.

For example, I trim Russian sages (Perovskia atriplicifolia) to just a few inches above the ground, or just above new growth, each spring and they love it. We had a hibiscus (I’m not sure of the variety, but see below) that we pruned to the ground each fall to help it winter over in Albuquerque. It came back in the spring, with huge, maroon-colored blooms that would cause people to stop on their walks and comment.

hibiscus-pruned-nm-landscape
We trimmed this hibiscus, the plant with the large, deep read blooms, to the ground in the fall to protect it from frost and to produce foliage and blooms.
hibiscus-flower
The hibiscus blooms were beautiful and continuous from mid-summer to early fall.

 

Finally, I trimmed an old and overgrown butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) to just above the ground last year, and by the end of summer, it was more than six feet tall and full of deep purple blooms, butterflies and hummingbirds.

Butterfly bush trimmed back
Butterfly bush (the woody plant in the back of the first bed) cut back last year nearly to the gtound.

 

Butterfly bush after hard pruning
Here’s the same bush in September from the other side. It’s happy, and so are the hummingbirds and butterflies.

Every plant differs in just how much to prune and when to prune it. For example, most of our xeric plants enjoy a cut in early spring. I wait until I see a little new growth appearing and then bring out my pruning shears. But we have a few forsythia bushes, which bloom early, but should be pruned after they bloom. And most evergreen shrubs need only some thinning.

Be sure to use clean bypass pruners and loppers on your plants, and clean after each use, especially if you cut any diseased branches.

Buying Garden Plants: Big-box Store Vs Local

A few days ago, I wrote a post about the Plant Select recommended and new introductions for 2015. Plant Select, up in Denver, evaluates how well these plants perform at high altitude and with less water, and also whether the plants are native to North America. And they encourage gardeners to support local nurseries. I couldn’t agree more.

Let’s take a look at the reasons why it’s often best to buy plants from local nurseries, along with reasons why it’s sometimes better to purchase at the Big Box store.

First, supporting your local nursery is the same as supporting your local grocery store, electrician or restaurant. It’s neighborly and the right thing to do, especially if you also own a local business. The major reason for gardeners to buy locally is to ensure they find native plant selections for their area. I can’t tell you how many times I have wandered into a chain store’s nursery area and shaken my head in wonder. It’s obvious that the store’s buyers know little about New Mexico, or perhaps lumped the state together as one zone, or maybe with Phoenix. That’s crazy! Some plants wouldn’t make it here, or might work as an annual, and others use too much water.

When buying from local shops run by people who live in your community and who usually are quite knowledgeable, you may have less selection, but what you lack in quantity, you gain in quality. I’m not necessarily saying the plants are always better quality – we’ll get to that. But the plant selection likely is confined to native plants for your area, or at least to plants most likely to succeed in local gardens.

 

Native nursery in Tucson, Ariz.
Shopping at a local native nursery in Tucson, Ariz.

So, when do you buy local and when do you buy from big chains? It’s a matter of personal choice, and every town is different. So this is based purely on my opinion and experiences: If I want a lot of annual flowers to fill a large bed or several containers, I might be more likely to buy those from a chain. I don’t need the quality of a longstanding perennial, and I want some variety. Chances are most annuals can make it through the season. I save money that way.

For a solid perennial, especially in a unique situation and one I’ve never grown before, I would head to the local nursery for advice and a quality selection. Chances are I will find staff with good knowledge of my zone and climate and how to care for the plant. I’ll pay more, but that’s OK if it’s a good quality plant, especially because I’m also getting the right, native plant and some free advice thrown in.

Some local nurseries grow their own stock. That also can be good, if they know what they’re doing and care for their plants well. But if you have a few bad experiences with a nursery’s plants and are paying higher prices, try another local garden source or seek advice from local Master Gardeners and extension offices and find your plants elsewhere, maybe in a nearby larger town, but still from an independent nursery. You can’t beat word-of-mouth recommendations when it comes to nurseries. They all look awesome as you drive up!

Plant Select 2015 Plants for High-Altitude Gardens

I’ve written before about how the harsh environment of the high desert and foothills of the Rocky Mountains affects plants. But I’ve got good news! The brilliant folks at Plant Select,have announced their new plants and recommendations for 2015. Plant Select is a nonprofit source of plant selections that thrive in the High Plains and Intermountain regions and in a range of conditions, including low water. I’ve summarized a few of my favorites:

Coral baby penstemon (Penstemon x “Coral baby”). This is a new plant with upright spikes of coral-pink flowers that bloom from May through July in Zones 5 – 8. It takes moderate to dry water conditions once established and prefers sandy, well-drained soil. I love to see hummingbirds on penstenoms. Plant Select says Coral baby also attracts bees and butterflies. The plant was selected by breeder Kelly Grummons of Denver, who specializes in xeric plants.

 

Coral baby penstemon, a new introduction from Plant Select for 2015.
Plant Select’s 2015 Coral baby penstemon for Zones 5 to 8. Image courtesy of Pat Hayward, Plant Select.

WINDWALKER royal red salvia (Salvia darcyi x S. microphylla). I like that this hummingbird attracter is deer resistant. Plant Select says that it produces blood-red blooms from June through October in Zones 5 to 9. Cutting the salvia back in early summer can reduce its height (which can reach up to 58 inches). WINDWALKER salvia likes full sun and is moderate to xeric in water needs. It’s also from Kelly Grummons of Denver.

Plant Select's new WINDWALKER Royal red salvia is a moderate to xeric beauty.
Plant Select’s WINDWALKER Royal red salvia, a new plant for 2015 that produces blood-red blooms all summer.

WINDWALKER big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii “P002S” grass. This new introduction from Plant Select for 2015. Bluestem grass is one of the most beautiful ornamental grasses, and grasses can make a great statement in a xeric landscape. I especially love them near walkways or up against rocks. The powdery blue foliage on the WINDWALKER big bluestem can grow up to 6 feet tall in Zones 5 to 8. We left our bluestem through fall and enjoyed the dried foliage in the winter wind, then cut it back to the ground in early spring. It grew back, but was not as hardy the next year. This variety was selected by Sunscapes Nursery, and should reward with purple plumes in fall. It should get by with moderate water or dry conditions.

Windwalker big bluestem from Plant Select, a new grass for 2015 that's perfect for a xeric garden.
Plant Select’s new introduction WINDWALKER big bluestem grass is a perfect choice for a breezy xeric garden. Image courtesy of Scott Skogerboe and Plant Select.

Engelmann’s daisy (Engelmannia peristenia). This is one of several recommended plants from Plant Select for 2015. Because it’s native, it should adapt to high desert climates and water conditions. These grow wild at our place and when we head out to mow down weeds, we try to mow around them. They grow about 2 feet tall and are filled with yellow daisy blooms in late summer that attract pollinators. In the garden, plant them in part shade to full sun in Zones 5 through 10.

Engelmann's daisy, a native wildflower of the Southern Great Plains, is among the 2015  Plant Select recommendations. Image courtesy of Pat Hayward and Plant Select.
Engelmann’s daisy, one of Plant Select’s recommended plants for 2015 because of its adaptability to all sorts of conditions.

Visit Plant Select to learn more about their selection process and 2015 recommendations. I’ll probably include a few more in future posts. And if you live in the high desert or intermountain West, ask your local nursery if they stock any of the Plant Select recommendations.

The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Weed or Wildflower, Part 2

Nearly a year ago (in May 2014), I wrote a post about the fine line between weeds and wildflowers. The gist of the rant was that our rock garden and entire property was being invaded by a lovely flower called yellow alyssum (Alyssum alyssoides). It’s a little earlier in the spring, and even yellower!

First, the good. If you love early, yellow blooms, this is a pretty little flower. It looks pretty up against a rock or under a red rose, perhaps. Notice I said “it,” as in a single plant. More on that in the ugly portion…

yellow-alyssum
Yellow alyssum sprouting from rocks in a New Mexico rock garden.

Now for the bad: This little spreader has cropped up throughout the garden, and we’ve pulled up a few, though I surrendered long before my husband. He has much more patience, though he hasn’t yet tackled the entire garden. Because he wouldn’t get halfway before he had to start again.

alyssum-prickly-pear
Yellow alyssum growing between pads of prickly pear cactus.

If I had any doubt last year about alyssum’s classification as a weed, at least in this setting, I have no doubt now. And that’s the ugly part. Despite our best (nontoxic, of course) efforts to control this little bloomer, it has taken over every nearly every surface and begun spreading to neighbors’ lawns as well. I have no idea how it started; it came with the house!

alyssum weed
Yellow alyssum as invasive weed in southeastern New Mexico.

Having called it ugly, I have to admit the lawn is really pretty when the sun hits it just right early and late in the day. And we are doing our part ecologically, because the bees swarm all over it when the sun shines. The dogs and deer must tread carefully.

alyssum and deer NM landscape
OK, I admit that the alyssum looks pretty here from a distance. But play “Where’s the Alyssum?” and you’ll spot it everywhere. And what exactly are those deer running from?

As for last year’s fear about the alyssum choking out summer grass, we still had a green lawn come summer. We don’t know if the flowers delayed the grass coming in, but I have a feeling they did. And I am frightened to think what will happen as it takes over, reseeds and multiplies. Meanwhile, I need to research medicinal properties of alyssum flowers or something. Maybe I could make some money?

UPDATE April 6, 2015: A few days after posting this, we headed east to visit relatives, through Roswell and almost to the Texas border. Guess what we saw growing in the worst possible conditions along roadways nearly the entire trip? You guessed it! And it was in my in-laws’ lawn and their neighbors’ yards too. My mother-in-law said she has seen it for years and knew it as a prairie wildflower. I give up and accept this invasive plant as a prairie wildflower … for now.

Water-Wise Gardening Tips

It’s dry out there. We had pretty good moisture over the winter months, but the early spring has been unseasonably warm (OK!) and dry. We’ve come to expect that in New Mexico, and a few days ago, I wrote about the wildfire danger. Today, let’s review a few tips for water-wise spring landscaping that help homeowners here and just about anywhere in the country where drought can be an issue.

  • Set out your rainwater harvesting system. If you live in a climate zone that’s warm enough to leave rain barrels out all winter or have underground cisterns, your system has been efficiently gathering water all winter. In other climates, rain barrels can freeze in winter. Ours are on the south side of the house and should be past danger of long and hard freeze. Now, all we need is rain.
rain barrel in New Mexico
A simple rain harvesting system that came as a kit. All we had to do was shorten our downspout.
  • Update your irrigation system to a low-volume method. The most practical and water-efficient way to hydrate ornamentals is with drip irrigation. When you use spray heads, water evaporates into the air. It also hits leaves and nearby plants. The spray can cause leaf disease in some plants, plus it’s more efficient to soak roots deeply than to water the entire plant.
  • As you plan your irrigation, or check out your current system this spring, make sure to adjust the water amount for the plants or areas where you have bubblers. For example, succulents and many xeric plants need no water at all once established, unless you’re in an extreme drought. You can cap those bubblers off. Too much water can actually harm some xeric plants. Use drips at the base of low- and medium-water flowers and groundcovers. Increase the flow rate for larger shrubs and trees, and add a few extra emitters around trees, especially while they’re becoming established. Remember that tree roots grow out, just like the canopy.
drip system for xeric gardening
A drip system irrigates rosemary, yucca and other plants in this xeric garden.
  • Water in the morning to get your plants through the heat of the day, and when less evaporation occurs.
  • Use raised beds. Raised beds and containers concentrate water, so if you want a few herbs or vegetables or some medium- to high-water ornamentals, confine them to an area that takes a little more water than the others. If you place the raised bed near your drip system, you can add it to the mix and adjust the flow on your emitter if necessary. Just remember, some containers, such as clay pots, dry out more quickly, even though they use less water each time. It’s like having a smaller tank on a fuel-efficient car. It’s not necessarily using more gas, just needing more frequent refilling.
  • When adding plants to your garden, build a small well around them to hold water. This helps the plant soak up the irrigation and keeps water from running down and off the plant, wasting your precious resource.
well at base of tree
This well helps hold water until this small tree is established, especially since it’s on a slope.
  • Use mulch when possible to help retain water and keep roots cool during the heat of the summer.

Finally, automatic irrigation is most efficient, and the consistent, timed watering is best for plants and lawns. But override it whenever you can after a good rain. I used to bemoan the waste when my neighbor’s sprinklers would come on as scheduled while their lawn already glistened with rainwater.

deer in xeric garden
Most of the plants in our xeric rock garden receive no irrigation, just supplemental watering to establish new plants or an occasional drink during drought.

Southwest Wildfire Awareness Week

Yesterday began Southwest Wildfire Awareness Week, which runs through April 4. According to New Mexico Fire Information, this year’s theme is “Where We Live, How We Live, Living with Wildfire.” Since it’s always dry here and Smokey Bear was born nearby (in the Capitan Mountains), I feel I should help spread the word about preventing wildfires.

Little Bear wildfire burn scar near Ruidoso, NM
Little Bear Fire burn scar outside Ruidoso, N.M., about one month following fire (July 2012). The fire burned 242 homes.

First, there are plenty of smart ways to prevent fires in the wilderness, and most require little more than common sense:

  • Foremost, follow posted fire restrictions, and use your head. Today, the wind is gusting to 45 mph and the humidity is 2 percent. That’s right – TWO percent. I wouldn’t have a campfire in the nearby forest or burn my trash. It also means putting out all fires, matches and embers with plenty of water, and having a shovel and dirt handy.
  • Around the house, use of string trimmers to cut tall grass can prevent fires from sparks and removing rocks before mowing tall, dry grass helps prevent sparks caused by metal blades hitting the rocks. Chainsaws and dragging items such as tow chains from cars can also start wildfires. Living in a rural area, I’ve seen devastating wildfires started by cigarettes thrown out of windows and cars pulled off the side of the road when their engines broke down or caught fire.
  • If you live in an area prone to fire, defend your home before a wildfire starts. Your local Forest Service office or wildfire prevention organization can provide information on landscaping strategies. A few include pruning trees so that lower branches are no less than six feet from the ground, spacing conifers 30 feet between crowns, and removing dead vegetation that is within at least 10 feet of your house.
  • Clean debris such as fall leaves and pine needles from your garden and from decks, gutters and patio areas.
  • Avoid stacking (or move) firewood within about 30 feet of your home. Keep your lawn mowed, and your ornamental bushes and plants cleaned up, trimmed and healthy. If they take too much water, consider switching to xeriscaping.

There are plenty more strategies to use, and this guide from Firewise.org has some great ideas for landscaping and construction. Firewise also maintains a list of native plants by state that are less prone to fire or wiser in dry landscapes.

White Fire burn scar near Ruidoso, NM
Four years ago this week, the White Fire burned more than 10,000 acres and five homes around Ruidoso Downs. Here’s the burn scar from our window, along the upper left.

It’s tough to thin trees for many homeowners, especially those who own mountain homes in the cool pines to get away from hotter climates, or people who have chosen to retire near national parks and forests. But we can’t control lightning strikes and wind from Mother Nature, or negligent behavior of others.