Bring Bees to Your New Mexico Garden

Help your garden grow and even help local farmers by including native plants that attract bees and other pollinators to your yard.

bee on blanket flower
Bee on gaillardia in our New Mexico garden in mid-October.

Diseases such as Colony Collapse Disorder, and other factors, have led to declining domesticated bee numbers in the United States. However, there are plenty of species of wild, or native, bees still buzzing around looking for pollen.

flowers in edible garden
This year, we planted flowers in our vegetable garden, partly for cutting and partly to attract pollinators.

Wild bees typically aren’t part of hives; they fend for themselves, living in the ground or in hollow stems of plants. Pesticides, insecticides and other dangers still can harm wild bees. Recent studies have shown that newer insecticides called neonicotinoids are absorbed by plants and can show up in pollen. Farmers and home or business owners use neonicotinoids widely to stop pests. They’re toxic to domestic and wild bees. Avoiding use of insecticides that also harm bees is one way to help bees survive and thrive in your landscape.

Here are a few other easy steps to take:

Dying pear tree left in garden
This pear tree is nearly dead, but it still provides habitat for birds and insects. We’re adding birdhouses for additional color.

Create Habitats

Since wild bees nest in soil and hollow branches, homeowners can ensure a few protected sites in their lawn for bees. This article from the Great Pollinator Project goes into detail on how to help ground nesters and other wild bees.

fallen evergreen
This fallen branch is so pretty and out of the way for us but home to critters.

Basically, some protected and sunny soil and leaving some dead branches on the ground or on shrubs such as sumac can help cavity nesters. You also can install artificial sites such as nesting blocks.

homemade bee nest
An old homemade bee nest that just needs to be reinforced and have new tubes added.

Plant Low-water Flowers

Plenty of favorite New Mexico flowers attract bees and other pollinators. Here’s a list of some of the popular choices of shrubs and flowers that grow in New Mexico gardens:

Flowers:

Agastache (also a big draw for hummingbirds)

Blanketflower (Gaillardia)

Catmint (Nepeta)

Globemallow (Sphaeralcea)

Hollyhock (Alcea rosea)

Penstemon (with many native species for hummingbirds too)

Speedwell (Veronica)

hyssop
Agastache, or hyssop, is a hummingbird and butterfly magnet.

Shrubs:

Apache plume and other native roses

Barberry (Berberis)

Blue Mist Spirea (Caryopteris x clandonensis)

Fairy Duster (Calliandra eriophylla)

Lavender (Lavendula)

Ornamental cherry (Prunus)

Santolina (Santolina)

Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum)

bee on apache plume flower
The pretty white flower of the xeric Apache plume attracts bees for nearly three seasons.

Herbs:

Rosemary

Sage (culinary, along with salvia ornamentals)

Thyme

lavender with bee
Our lavender swarm with bees from the time they begin blooming until late fall.

Learn more about pollinator plants for New Mexico here.

Provide Seasonal Color

The more months or seasons you have plants that attract bees in bloom, the better. We have some native, weed-like groundcovers that bloom in early spring, typically by April 1, that attract so many bees that we hear a low buzz sound all day when sunny. Leave flowers and seedheads on some annuals well into fall and frost danger to provide food for bees and birds. Even in higher mountain regions, native species of penstemon, beebalm and yarrow can bloom well into fall, as can hardy flowers such as gaillardia and cosmos.

spring flower alyssum
This allysum takes over our land and rock garden in spring, feeding hundreds of bees.

Finally, a word about fear of bees. I get it – wasps and bees can be scary if they come after your dessert on the patio or buzz you when you get too close. But I have never had a sting while working in my garden, and the only time I recall ever being stung was when I was a child and running through the lawn barefoot. Even when I trim lavender stalks, the bees might buzz me, but don’t sting. And if you want to remove spent flowers from plants, choose low-light times of day, such as dusk, when bees are less active. Most of all, please don’t avoid plants that bees love just to keep them out of your yard. You’re not just helping bees or the environment at large, you’re supporting a mini ecosystem that makes sure tomatoes and other edible plants produce food for you and your family.

Helping Birds and Wildlife Get Through Winter

I tend to hibernate in winter, and emerge only on days that are sunny (common), not windy (rare) and warmer than normal for this time of year (sporadic). I get why animals do the same, and I love the thought that I’m helping them get through winter in some small way.

pine siskin snow
This little bird looks for grass seed under a light layer of snow. Photo by David Higgins, Albuquerque, N.M.

Here are a few ideas for helping area birds and wildlife with your landscape:

Deer have their own diet, thank you

Animal lovers feel empathy for wildlife when severe weather hits, leading to cold and scarcity of plants the animals browse. Unfortunately, tourists in mountain communities appear to be more interested in taking selfies with wildlife. We live near a resort town, where small herds of deer and elk (and bears) live in or enter populated areas. I’ve seen tourists pull over and feed deer. I don’t even want to know what they are feeding the animals. It’s also likely that some people in wildlife areas put out feeders to attract deer. But I don’t agree with that for several reasons.

Buck in garden
Sure, the bucks can trample a few plants in our garden, but I don’t mind that this one feels comfortable and warm here.

Ups and downs of feeders

First, deer take time to adjust to new foods,  many of which are not easily digested by wild animals. The kitchen scraps or Doritos from a car window can do more harm than good. Even if a homeowner sets out a feeder with pellets designed for the deer diet, doing so changes browsing and movement patterns and makes it easier for predators to find and prey on herds. The deer also can depend on humans or compete more for concentrated food sources, which means the weak ones lose out at a feeder. In open areas with natural food sources, the fawns and young bucks can find nearby sources when kicked off the favored spots.

Natural food

We live in a residential area with large lots and our deer are not as used to people as those a few miles up the road. I like it that way, and instead of feeding them, we leave our grass longer in fall to help with their browsing (and we believe it helps improve native grass coverage the next spring). We also do our best not to bother the herd by walking slowly and away from them if possible when sharing space outdoors. That also means teaching our dogs to ignore them.

New Mexico snow with grackles
A light blanket of snow with a big flock of grackles. We seldom see deer with even this light of a layer.

I have wondered and worried why deer don’t come around when we have a blanket of snow on the ground, but I thought it might be too difficult to get to the food below. That is true, and deer know to fatten up and live off reserves, staying close to their trees up higher for shelter. Coming down to graze through a layer or snow would take more energy than the payoff. Other wildlife shelter ideas are piles of dead tree limbs away from the house and in protected areas, along with fencing that is easy for deer and elk to enter.

Birds need food and shelter at various heights in winter.
Sparrows and finches stage in a high tree before taking turns diving to our feeders.

Feeding birds in winter

We do supplement birds’ diets in winter, and although I will continue doing so, I see some evidence of the same problems that can occur at deer feeders. First, hawks and kestrels come right into the garden, hunting near the feeders. They would help me and themselves more by finding some yummy mice to eat instead. Second, we see some feeder competition at times, but we have several different feeders/types of food, and for the most part, the birds all play well together. Placing feeders at different spots and filling them with different energy sources can support more types of birds, especially during migration.

cooper's hawk at feeder
A hawk hangs out right next to a feeder in a redbud.

Natural food and shelter

Of course, natural food sources are great for birds too. But by late winter, the stores of berries, nuts, and seeds on flowers, trees and bushes has dwindled. As I wrote about this time last year, birds need extra food in winter to gather energy to fight cold. And many, such as juncos, must replenish that energy daily in cold weather.

Plants also provide shelter, and placing both shelter and food sources at various heights and spots in your garden offers some protection. Here are some bird-friendly plants:

Sunflower from birds
One of the best natural bird feeders, the sunflower.
  • Flowers for seeds, including sunflowers, Echinacea (coneflower), coreopsis, salvias, and many native grasses and annuals. Milkweed (Asclepias) not only helps Monarch butterflies, but attracts plenty of insects that birds eat.
  • Fruiting vines and shrubs such as Virginia creeper (Pathenocissus quinqefolia), wild grapes, elderberry (Sambucus) and serviceberry (Amalanchier utahensis Koehne, or Utah serviceberry),
  • Native trees for fruits, nuts and shelter. Birds need a high place to land when escaping or looking for predators. Evergreens such as arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis) and all spruces offer dense shelter from the elements for landing or nesting.
Rose shrubs provider shelter and food for birds.
This wild rose needs some serious trimming in a few months, but it is a favorite shelter for birds, including a pair of desert cardinals (pyrrhuloxia).

These plants also can provide winter interest for homeowners’ gardens and can feed birds through fall and early winter in some cases.

I’ll admit that part of my willingness to also spend the money on bird seed is selfish. It’s nice to watch the bird show from our window when the plants are dormant and I’m stuck inside. But I also like to think that the shelter and food our place provides help ease the burden for these and other creatures.

Wildflowers and Deer

We’re trying to add more wildflowers to our garden and create small meadows around some areas of the property. One of the challenges in choosing locations and flowers is munching deer.

deer in garden
Deer grazing in winter just a few feet from the house. The stucco buckets cover some succulents that need extra heat and deer deterrent.

Our deer population is not huge, mostly because of a previous wildfire in the forest north of us. I don’t want to exclude deer from the property and am happy to let them graze our grama and other grasses all year long. Although we seldom see the deer once summer days heat up, we see evidence of their munching from time to time.

Blocking deer is the best way to keep plants safe. But it’s much easier to fence around a tree, bush or vegetable garden than it is around a wildflower meadow. Fencing kind of ruins the effect. So, the best way to keep deer from eating the flowers is to plant “deer resistant” varieties. The quotation marks refer to the fact that our deer have not read the plant descriptions. They avoid several plants completely, but every so often, we find surprising telltale signs of deer damage. I think it’s difficult to guarantee deer resistance for most plants.

yarrow salvia
Deer leave yarrow and salvia alone. These are both flowering well into October this year.

Deer-resistant wildflowers

We recently ordered a deer-resistant wildflower seed mix from High Country Gardens that we’ll plant after the first hard frost. Not all of the plants bloom the first year, which is disappointing, but we’ll plant a few deer-resistant annual plants to fill in so the meadow looks colorful for a special event we’re hosting next summer. Here are some of the flowers included in the deer-resistant wildflower mix:

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium); Lanceleaf and plains coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolate and C. tinctoria); Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea); California poppy (Eschscholzia californica); red poppy (Papaver rhoeas); and the trusted blanketflower (Gaillardia), along with several types of lupines (Lupinus) and sages (Salvia).

california poppies
California (Mexican) poppies from seed. The young plants had a little deer damage, but recovered. We’ve left late seedheads on the plants hoping they’ll spread.

This wildflower mix needs full to partial sun – at least six hours of sun a day. We have a few areas that are shadier, so we’re still looking for an easy solution there. In April, I wrote about five drought-tolerant plants that love shade. Columbines come to mind, of course, but some salvias take at least partial shade and are deer resistant. Then again, some shade lovers, like hostas, attract deer. We’ve also got some rocky areas, and plan to sprinkle white love-in-a-mist (Nigella) seeds and gathered larkspur (Delphinium consolida) seeds this fall as well.

salvia and paper flower
Most wildflowers and low-water perennials need some sun. Some types of salvia can tolerate partial shade.

Keeping deer out of meadows

One strategy for keeping deer out of wildflower patches is to surround the area with aromatic plants that deer avoid, such as lavender or rue. There are lots of deer deterrent products; I’ve had success with Messina’s Deer Stopper spray on plants in our xeric garden that deer had previously disturbed. The product remains effective for about 30 days, but I have to remember to spray regularly for continued protection. Spraying an entire meadow would take way too long, but I think the spray could be really effective on those flowers we’re most concerned about or know deer have eaten in the past.

deer stopper spray
This poor little rose has been stepped on and eaten by deer. I’m spraying it now to keep them off this winter and give it a fighting chance.

Finally, if uncertain about the best wildflower choices for a meadow, work with what you have. You can try gathering seeds from native plants or leave the area unmowed at the end of the season and let nature spread the seeds for you. I’ve done that in an area with a higher grama-to-weed ratio, and hope that each time I walk through it, I spread grama and flower seeds. We pulled as many weeds from it as we could to give the native plants like grama, wild blanketflowers, verbena and daisies a better chance of reseeding.

blanketflower seed head grama
Native grama grass and blanketflower seedheads left unmowed in my meadow experiment.

Note: Messina’s sent me a free sample of Deer Stopper spray, but did not influence my use or review of the product.

How to Ensure a Dog-Friendly Landscape

Our loyal, furry family members love being outside, and it’s important to keep them safe from dangers that lurk in back yards. It’s especially important on larger properties and in rural areas. Here are a few tips on making your landscape more dog friendly.

Dave HIggins Jack russell
Buster gotta’ play. Dogs need to be safe and have some space to run. Photo by Dave Higgins.

Poisonous plants. Lots of gorgeous and native plants can poison dogs who ingest leaves, fruit or seeds from the plant. The Humane Society has a list of plants poisonous to pets so you can check it against your garden. For example, the pods of a bird of paradise bush can poison dogs, as can daffodil bulbs and entire iris plants. Larkspur, oleander and Sago palms also have poisonous elements. Jimson weed, a common xeric weed/wildflower, also is poisonous.

Jimson weed poisonous dogs
Jimson weed (Datura) is poisonous, but the worst offender is its large seedheads.

The best way to protect dogs from poisonous plants is to avoid planting them. However, some grow naturally or are favorites. If the seeds are the dangerous part of the plant, gardeners who own dogs and want a particular plant in their garden must be vigilant about removing seedheads as they appear. It also helps to place plants with noxious leaves or flowers in the back of a raised bed or a fenced-off garden area. The level of protection depends on whether your dog spends time outside unattended and often, the dog’s age and curiosity level.

Chemicals. Controlling weeds and bugs in the garden sometimes means pulling out herbicides and pesticides. Even some organic control methods can pose dangers for your canines. For example, organic compounds such as nicotine or pennyroyal are toxic to dogs. Our dogs also love (for some reason) to eat soil after we use fish emulsion and similar organic fertilizers. Some of these can be toxic if enough is ingested. The other danger is that they attract dogs to potentially toxic plant materials or pesticides; for that reason, don’t mix fertilizers with pesticides.

dogs in chair jack russels
And some spoiled dogs get to sit in a patio chair. They can see better, but we also can keep an eye on them.

Animal droppings. As I said, our dogs have refined tastes. And a virtual four-acre buffet of animal droppings. Sometimes, droppings contain diseases, and horse manure can contain de-wormers that are toxic to dogs if ingested in large quantities. The other problem is dental health. Naturally, munching on other animals’ manure causes dental problems from bacteria. And their breath… enough said. I wish I had a solution. In smaller lawns, it’s important to clean up droppings from cats or other visitors. We can only correct or distract our dogs when we catch them in these behaviors.

jack russells
Yep, they’re a team, and that includes getting into things they shouldn’t when outside.

Weeds. Some weeds can cause allergies in or hurt the paws of our four-legged friends. Out West, one of the biggest culprits is the foxtail. The seed from the weed/grass has barbs that latch onto a dog’s face, feet or tail. The seeds migrate and can burrow into the dog’s ears or internal organs, causing serious infection. Ragweeds and other plants might cause severe itching or reactions. And the weed of the month here is the goathead. It’s also called puncturevine, and I can attest to the pain from the sharp points on the seed heads. They really hurt dog paws, and are especially problematic for running dogs. We’re trying to hoe them up (thousands!) before they get large and go to seed, but I know we’ll miss some.

goat head weed
Goatheads. Thousands of goatheads with awful puncturing seedheads. It’s best to hoe or pull them while small and before they flower.

Critters. Dogs are curious about more than poop and fertilizer. And that means they need to be protected from critters, especially at night, dusk and dawn. We’ve had stray dogs, skunks, squirrels, feral cats, deer, elk, wild turkeys, eagles, roosters, rabbits, bull snakes, cows and even a peacock in our yard. There are plenty others I imagine I never see. Although most people around here allow their dogs to roam, we choose to protect our little mutts. It’s not cost-effective to fence our entire property (not to mention that doing so keeps out deer and turkeys), so our solution is a small kennel. When we’re gone and the dogs need relief or a reason to bark, they can head out a small dog door and into a 10 x 8 kennel. It might seem cruel to give dogs so little space, but not if they also get regular exercise and attention. There are few days when ours fail to get outside at least twice and explore under our supervision. It’s true that critters can enter dog doors, but the high fence adds an additional layer of protection.

dog door and kennel
This pet door in my office window lets the mutts out into a small kennel; we placed steps on both sides.

Of course, there is so much more involved in keeping dogs safe and happy outside, such as ensuring they have shade in summer or warmth in winter and water all of the time. And dogs and kids need a little turf for playing, even in drought-stricken areas. The best way to keep dogs safe from poisons, critters and other injuries is to fence them. Absent that, monitor their activity. Sure, they sometimes take off when excited by a deer or rabbit. But a little training and use of the right word and tone can usually stop them in their tracks. Besides, why have a big yard if you can’t enjoy it with your pets? And if you have a small yard, check out this article on a new trend for some pet shelters – dog enrichment gardens.

dogs need shade
Missy stays close at all times. She’s enjoying some lazy shade time while we prune plants in the xeric garden.

Earth Day 2016: Five Green Gardening Tips

It’s Earth Day 2016! It’s hard to believe this movement started in 1970. Earth Day says “let’s get big stuff done for the planet.” I love that idea! But it’s also overwhelming. I mean, I have enough trouble taking care of myself while juggling work, family, and getting anything done to care for our four acres. But the only way to take big steps for the planet is if everyone takes a few small steps. Here are five tips for greener gardening today and all year long.

panorama of New Mexico xeric garden
If only I had a 360 camera. Mountains, sky, low-water plants, and passive solar living.

Have an empty spot to fill? Use what you have.

Sometimes a plant dies even with our best efforts, leaving an empty spot. Or maybe you’ve been studying an area of your yard all winter knowing it just needs something. Instead of buying a new plant, divide or move an existing one. Plenty of plants that spread divide and transplant easily. For example, Russian sage sends up runners that you can sometimes transplant. Our purple salvia created about five offshoots over winter, one below the garden in the grass. Tim dug up several and potted them; we even gave one to a friend. We also moved several plants. This is a great money saver (and sometimes plant saver) when areas of the garden become overgrown or one plant no longer gets the sun it should. We moved one of the three Apache plumes in our xeric garden to an area that helps screen off a little bit of our vegetable garden. Close enough to attract bees.

New Mexico rain barrel, reuse plant
Just behind the rain barrel (hint, hint) is a blue mist spirea. It did well there until we diverted some water when extending the patio (and added the barrel, which can overflow). It got too much water! So we split it up and moved it.
yarrow before moving
Yarrow is an herb, easy drought-tolerant plant and pollinator magnet.

Help beneficial insects.

Our lawn and garden attracts bees from late winter until the insects cluster tucked away in winter. The garden also attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Moving the Apache plume, along with an offshoot yarrow and two divisions from our blue mist spirea, we just added a new hangout, inviting them to gather closer to our tomatoes and cucumbers!  We’ll add milkweed this year for the monarchs, and I can’t wait to see how that goes. We’re growing ladybugs, unintentionally. And I’m counting on them to keep aphids off the milkweed.

bee on blanketfower bloom
Annual Gaillardia plants reseed all over the garden. Bees and butterflies love them.

Avoid chemicals whenever possible.

Speaking of ladybugs and bees: insecticides kill these helpful insects along with the bad. There also is no need for chemical-laden herbicides in most cases. And I’m saying that knowing full well that half of our orchard is almost entirely covered by horehound. This member of the mint family does best in drought. I know that because if we try to hoe it up, we usually hit rock. I can’t win against a plant that grows from rocks and prefers dry conditions, especially around here. My Earth Day gift: Anyone who wants to make candy or cough syrup can come here and harvest all the horehound they want! As for care of vegetables and other plants you actually want in your landscape, paying attention to their sun exposure and watering needs helps prevent future problems. Enriching soil with compost is a slow, natural way to add nutrients. Compost tea is a gentle fertilizer.

horehound spreading
We mow and hoe, but the horehound thrives in dry conditions.

Grow food for your family or wildlife.

Growing food in the garden saves water. It sounds counterintuitive, but it’s not. I can control (within the limits of nature and horehound) the health of my edibles. And keeping them healthy can save water. Sure, they are not native to our area and require more water in the heat of summer than we could ever responsibly pour to an ornamental plant. But every tomato in the grocery store was watered, probably a with a lot more than I use. Even though water availability is regional, it also can vary. And it’s a shared, finite resource. A shrub with berries feeds birds. Fruit trees are a great example of planting a tree for shade or spring blooms with the added benefit of food. Those who don’t like the mess can choose dwarf fruit trees appropriate for their area. And no matter what anyone says, I think green bean, melon and cucumber plants are as pretty as most flowers!

cucumber blossom
Fully open cucumber blossom. I think it’s an attractive plant, too.
old pear tree trunk
This old pear tree is a stunner when it blooms. The trunk looks like it could talk.

Water responsibly, no matter where you live.

Back to water, because that is always a concern on our place and in most of the Southwest. As I said, it’s a shared and finite resource. If I use too much from our well (or from city supply), I affect the water table, the saturated, upper part of groundwater where rain has soaked through soil. Groundwater provides nearly 40 percent of water for cities and counties, and drinking water for most rural people. It’s everybody’s job to do their part in the home and garden, no matter where they live. Use of drip irrigation, watching and caring for plants sustainably, watering early in the day and using automatic timers to control sprinklers or smartphone timers to remember to turn off the hose are small but important steps every gardener can take.

snorkeling in clear water
And this is why Earth Day matters most. For my daughter, her fiance and all future generations. Photo by Dave Higgins.

Happy Earth Day!

Keeping Critters Out of the Garden

You water and nurture a delicious tomato from seed and delight each day in seeing it grow and fruit. And then a critter eats the branches, roots or leaves. It’s a little tougher to love wildlife when they destroy your plants and food.

deer grazing near garden
Deer grazed near our vegetable garden while we filled our troughs with dirt. Notice the fence post on the right.

Some critters are easy to manage, but others not so much. Here, we have gophers, deer, gophers, elk, gophers, squirrels, gophers, rabbits, gophers, skunks and more gophers. I’ve listed a few tips for managing or controlling the ones that visit our gardens most often, which are deer — and you guessed it, gophers.

Directing Deer

The deer around our place have been especially active this year, and I believe one reason is that we did not mow our grass late in the season. A warm February produced new grass to graze as they ate up the old. Having them here more often is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, we get to enjoy them more often, but they have more opportunities to try out plants we’d prefer they didn’t eat.

xeric garden deer
Even after deer spent a winter munching regularly in our xeric garden, most plants did fine!

We have to fence many young trees and our vegetable garden to keep deer from destroying plants. Other tactics include trimming branches high enough to keep deer from reaching them while standing on their hind legs. We missed some low branches on our pear, and I noticed telltale signs the other day that deer had munched on the ends of several. Last summer, however, they ignored some unfenced tomatoes until well into fall.

We also have many deer-resistant plants in our ornamental garden, which avoids the expense and waste associated with choosing plants they love. Typically, only fawns graze plants such as rosemary, lavender, sage and butterfly bush. They’ve chewed a new kniphofia (red hot poker) to the ground and almost killed an oriental poppy. Bucks can also damage young trees by rubbing their antlers on the trunks, and small plants can be broken when deer step on them.

buck kitchen window
This buck spotted us through our kitchen window while he was grazing in our front yard.

We won’t exclude deer. After years, I still thrill at the sight of them, and love watching the herd grow as part of recovery following a past forest fire. So, here are a few strategies we use for protecting plants from deer:

  • Fence around vulnerable, favorite or valuable plants. And remember that a deer can go under a fence to munch just as easily as they it goes over one. Fencing can be attractive, as long as it’s also functional.
  • I have heard that fencing should be eight feet or higher, but we’ve done fine (so far) with 6-foot fencing (on 8-foot posts to allow at least a foot to 18 inches underground).
deer fence vegetable garden
The fence around our first vegetable garden area was inexpensive to build and has kept out deer.
  • Protect small individual plants with 5-gallon buckets (after sawing out the bottom). If it’s a plant favored by deer, we also strap chicken wire across the top of the bucket.
  • Although I don’t necessarily believe that repellants work, we have used Irish Spring soap in pantyhose to hang near plants with some success.
  • Don’t assume deer avoid prickly and thorny plants. They love rose bushes, though they tend to not eat much at once.
deer fencing
This fencing from old fence posts was a little high on the bottom, but only a fawn got to our sand cherries.

Gophers – the Bane of Our Existence

I do want to eradicate gophers, but we’re losing. The underground varmints can chew and claw their way through rocks, and probably titanium. We can’t even count the destruction they’ve caused, but we know they killed a dwarf apple tree, a lavender plant, and several other ornamentals. My favorite (or least favorite) example is the day we noticed that our new ornamental grass looked shorter. We blamed the deer for chewing on it, but when we got close, we noticed it had been shortened from the roots up. The stalks simply fell into the hole when we touched them.

gopher damage
Example of gopher damage near our peach tree. The tunnels collapse when deer, elk or people step on them, also making the ground a little unsteady for ankles.

The only control method that works for us is trapping. It’s a time-consuming business, but if we didn’t try to manage the numbers, the gophers would continue to multiply and take over the property. In fact, they nearly have. In one year, Tim trapped more than 80 gophers, and we still have lots of activity around the four acres. Our other method is exclusion, and the only way to exclude them is to fence underground. If you’re not sure whether you have pocket gophers, this publication from the University of California Davis has excellent photos of their mounds.

metal chicken scratch
Metal wire, or chicken scratch, from the home improvement store stucco section. We buried it about 22 to 24 inches deep and left some above ground to discourage bunnies and squirrels.

Between the deer and gophers, we’ve had to fence nearly two feet underground and six feet over. We dug a trench and purchased metal stucco wire to place into it, bending it slightly at the bottom. We also have some metal roofing material we’ll place along the side of our garden that borders our neighbor’s lawn. Here are a few more tips on gopher control:

  • An underground gopher barrier must be solid metal or metal wire with holes smaller than 3/4 inch. We used chicken scratch.
  • There are poisons for gophers, but we avoid them, because dogs and other animals might eat the pellets. Trapping seems cruel, but I think poisoning would be worse, frankly. The UC Davis site also discusses how to trap. Tim has often caught a gopher with only one trap per tunnel.
  • Gophers seem to prefer tender, young plant roots. I also am convinced that they gravitate to areas we’ve recently watered, but that’s just observation.
  • Use containers or raised beds. We use metal troughs and drill about half-inch holes, just large enough to support drainage. Surround raised beds with metal screen or solid metal, or dig down and cover the bottom of the bed with metal. Just remember that the  gopher barrier also can be a barrier to plant roots. Placing containers close to your home usually prevents deer damage.
  • Be aware of natural gopher predators. Many “safe” snakes, along with owls, cats and dogs prey on gophers. But you can’t count on it. A bull snake in our garden went after baby rabbits as well, and owls and cats don’t focus their hunting.
  • Cleaning up heavily weeded or covered areas can help control gophers. For example, we often discover mounds under low trees and bushes or in our irrigation ditch.

 

How To Identify Monarch Butterflies

I’m as excited as anyone about supporting Monarch butterfly conservation efforts. We plan to buy several swamp milkweed plants to add to the existing trees, shrubs and flowering plants around our property.

A monarch rests on asters. Image courtesy of the National Park Service.
A monarch rests on asters. Image courtesy of the National Park Service.

I got to see the Monarchs many years ago while on a visit to Pacific Grove, Calif. I’m not sure, however, that I’ve ever spotted a Monarch in New Mexico, and a map I checked had a giant question mark for much of New Mexico and Arizona, even though our states border Mexico. Although singularly striking, Monarchs look similar to a few other butterflies. What’s more, the critical aspect of saving them requires providing habitats for the butterflies’ larvae. Enter milkweed.

A flowering milkweed plant in the pollination gardens at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum outside Tucson, Ariz.
A flowering milkweed plant in the pollination gardens at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum outside Tucson, Ariz.

Monarch life cycle

Monarch butterflies lay their eggs on milkweed plants, which also attract other pollinators. The Monarchs find milkweed even when it has finished flowering for the season. The eggs are tiny (about the size of the head of a pin), but as they take on adult form, the larvae, or caterpillars, emerge and grow rapidly.

Monarch butterfly lifescyle. Courtesy of the U.S.D.A. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/Monarch_Butterfly/biology/index.shtml
Monarch butterfly life cycle. Courtesy of the U.S.D.A. http://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/Monarch_Butterfly/ biology/index.shtml

Like many gardeners, I freak out a little when I see a big caterpillar on a plant. I can’t abide tomato hornworms and the damage they inflict, and we also have had branches of several small trees stripped by the io moth caterpillar. This bad boy stings and releases a poisonous substance that can irritate the skin or cause severe reactions in some people. Last summer, we found a similar greenish-yellow caterpillar on fennel plants, or what was left of them. I think I’ve identified them now with some research.

The io caterpillar is similar in color, but has a fuzzy, fluorescent look. And it stings!
The io moth caterpillar is similar in color, but has a fuzzy, fluorescent look. And it stings! Check out the stripped branches in every direction.

So, I wanted to be sure that I can easily recognize the Monarch caterpillar before trying to attract them to my yard. In fact, all gardeners who want to help the Monarchs should be able to recognize the insect in all forms. I would hate to hand-pick a Monarch caterpillar and end its life cycle! Strangely, finding quality resources to help me identify the caterpillars, and especially to share photos, did not come easy. I finally tracked down some information.

Monarch or Queen?

Although I don’t want to hurt the chances of any butterfly, I was relieved to discover that the caterpillars on the fennel were most likely Queen butterflies, not Monarchs. Queen butterfly caterpillars also feed on milkweed, and can share plants with Monarchs. The butterflies look really similar, but have a few distinctive differences.

Here's a Queen butterfly enjoying milkweed in fall at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum.
Here’s a Queen butterfly enjoying milkweed in fall at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. Notice the white dots that extend toward the body.
Monarch wings look like stained glass designs. Image courtesy of National Park Service.
Monarch wings look like stained glass designs, and the color varies slightly throughout. Image courtesy of National Park Service.

Queen, Monarch and Viceroy butterflies have similar colors and patterns. Monarchs are a deeper orange, and the hue changes slightly throughout the wings. The best way to tell the adults apart is the location of white spots on the wings. The Queen butterfly has dots that extend into the orange areas of the wings. But Monarchs have a distinctive stained glass appearance and no dots outside the black edges of the wings. Viceroys are smaller than Monarchs and have triangular white dots under their wings.

Just to confuse matters: Here's a Viceroy adult. Courtesy of the NPS.
Just to confuse matters: Here’s a Viceroy adult. Courtesy of the NPS.

You can distinguish the Monarch caterpillar from other caterpillars by the antennae. The Queen butterfly has three sets of antennae and filaments, and the Monarch has only two – one antenna pair on the front end and a filament pair on the back end. The Queen caterpillar spots an extra set about one-third of the way down from the front. Viceroy caterpillars do not look like Monarch larvae; the Viceroy caterpillar has a brown, rough appearance.

Close-up of a Monarch caterpillar. Note two sets of protrusions, while the Queen has three.
Close-up of a Monarch caterpillar. Note two sets of protrusions, while the Queen has three. Image courtesy of NPS Photo/Alicia Lafever.

The Monarch young larva is nearly clear until it begins to eat milkweed and grow. The larval portion of the life cycle lasts about 10 to 16 days. They can become plump just before pupating, having eaten plenty of milkweed. The caterpillars move away from milkweed as they prepare to evolve to pupae.

Queen butterflies are pretty as well. This one enjoys a butterfly weed flower in Northeastern New Mexico.
Queen butterflies are pretty as well. This one enjoys a butterfly weed flower in Northeastern New Mexico.

Check the Resources page for excellent pages and videos on identifying and protecting Monarchs. Happy hunting and pollinating!

Baby, It’s Cold Outside and Wildlife Gotta’ Eat

I’ve been working long hours this week wrapping up a project that’s due soon (cause writers gotta’ eat too). So I haven’t been able to research gardening topics for the blog. I’ve also had some trouble keeping my attention focused on my work task, mostly because birds and deer have been busy stocking up on food and it’s so fun to watch.

snow on rose hips
Snow on rose hips. Birds and other critters eat these in winter, and the birds congregate in our two native rose bushes.

Last week, I wrote about nurturing wildlife instead of flowers this time of year. And I have say it has paid off. Some of the grazing is natural. Deer and wild turkeys naturally roam here in winter, but I’ve never had so much fun with winter birds. We’ve got huge flocks that normally fly by now landing in trees and I have to stay really disciplined to keep from pulling out a book or bringing up my Cornell Merlin Bird ID app to identify them.

The apricot tree is up above the bath and feeder. We normally saw these flocks fly overhead, but yesterday, they circled and landed in the tree. There were 40 or so at once, and I believe most are Lazuli buntings.
The apricot tree is up above the bath and feeder. We normally saw these flocks fly overhead, but yesterday, they circled and landed in the tree. There were 40 or so at once, and I believe most are Lazuli buntings.

When I need to get up and stretch, I peek through the windows at the activity, watching the birds and deer and trying to get photos without disturbing them. I thought I’d share a few this week, then try to get my head back on gardening — and the holidays, of course — next week. I’ll also keep my eye out to get a photo of the latest spotting. I believe it’s a sharp-shinned hawk, who’s attracted not so much to our feeder, but to the small birds around it.

I'll get back to the birds, but check out this buck. He is solid! So gorgeous.
I’ll get back to the birds, but check out this buck. He is solid! So gorgeous.
One of the tiniest fawns I've seen around here came with the latest herd. This one is still fluffy, and not much taller than the bird bath!
One of the tiniest fawns I’ve seen around here has joined the growing herd. And that’s good, because our deer population was affected by a wildfire several years ago. This one is still fluffy, and not much taller than the bird bath!
I believe this is a dark-eyed junco, but am not certain. I call it Ambitious.
I believe this is a dark-eyed junco, but am not certain.I call it Ambitious.
And successful!
And successful!
The scrub jays chase away lots of other birds and each other. But I love how the couples stick together.
The scrub jays chase away lots of other birds and each other. But I love how the couples stick together.
Birds gotta' drink too. And bathe. It has gotten a little crowded at the bath.
Birds gotta’ drink too. And bathe. It has gotten a little crowded at the bath.
We're even getting action on the thistle sock.
We’re even getting action on the thistle sock.

Nurture Birds Instead of Flowers in Winter

Surely, one reason gardeners in cold climates get a little depressed in winter is that we can’t get outside as much. Another reason is that we aren’t growing and nurturing plants. At least I discovered that’s happening to me, because I’m kinda’ trying to grow birds instead.

bird on suet and nut feeder
This is one of my new obsessions. A Pyrrhuloxia, a cardinal-like bird who showed up just before Thanksgiving. The tuft on his head reminds me of Woody Woodpecker. He is so fun to watch! I hung this new feeder more for convenience than protection, but he checked it out the first day.

We’ve always had some birds in winter. Living in a semi-rural location bordered by a river and national forest brings some pretty interesting birds. For example, a solo sandhill crane flies east and west over the river each day, and sometimes lands behind our place. Only once have we seen two cranes.

This year, I have been spending lots of time birdwatching. OK, bird obsessing. Just switching to better bird food helped, and we saw several birds this year we’ve never seen before.A Northern Flicker decided to roost up under one of our beams. I know the bird naturally perches on the side of trees (or buildings apparently), but watching the poor thing huddle into a corner during 25-degree nights broke my heart.

northern flicker on house
I can’t get close to the skittish Northern Flicker. There are three of them on our property. This one claimed our bedroom patio.

I ordered a house specially designed for flickers from the National Wildlife Federation. Tim mounted it in the same corner. The first night, the bird perched near or on the house. By the second night, he checked in. And I check every night to make sure he returns. Just a little obsessive.

Northern flicker bird house
Here’s the Northern Flicker house from the National Wildlife Federation. It’s perfect. Tim mounted it tightly against the corner the flicker was sleeping in (and pecking at), and it took only one night until he checked it out and headed inside. He’s taken up permanent residence.
northern flicker near house
Told you I was obsessed. I spotted our buddy yesterday around lunch time again. You can see his house up to the right. Now that I have the house, I would like a telephoto lens for my Nikon, please?

Now, I’ve moved on to some new winter feeders and other ideas. And I’m having to force myself to pay attention to work during the day!

Leaving birds some shelter, food and water in winter is the right thing to do. And as I was writing this post, I found out that today is World Wildlife Conservation Day. Knowing my efforts give birds a boost in winter helps me justify the expenditure and time. Here are a few tips for keeping birds fed and watered so they can make it through cold and dry winter seasons:

  • In winter, birds need fat and energy to make it through the cold nights. Frankly, I have a feeling a few are regretting settling down in our community this year. Seriously, by going about 40 miles east or west, I imagine their nights would be 5 to 10 degrees warmer. Nuts, suet and fruit provide fat and energy, and black oil sunflower seeds are a year-round preference for many birds.
ice on bird feeder
It gets cold here! This was over Thanksgiving weekend. It took the birds a few hours to man up and hit the feeder.I’m not sure if any made their way into the birdhouse next door.
  • Quality of seed makes a difference. It’s not only better for the birds that stop by, but should bring more birds and more varieties of birds. When we have run out and had to buy seed at big-box stores, I’ve found way too many twigs among the seeds. Plus, much of the selection in inexpensive seed mixes gets cast aside and lands on the ground, making a big mess.
  • Buy the seeds with no hulls to avoid that big mess. The ladies at Wild Birds Unlimited in Albuquerque told me I’d get some different varieties by using hulled sunflower seeds instead of seeds with hulls, and they were right on! Some birds, such as dark-eyed juncos, can’t break open seed hulls. The seeds are well worth the money and actually last longer. So efficient!
bird feeder with sunflower seeds and pigeon guards
Here’s the ice-cold bird diner filled with sunflower seeds, no hulls included. Notice the pigeon guards, also from Wild Birds Unlimited, which work and were well worth the price.
  • Better-quality and no-hull seeds also help keep away nuisance birds. Sorry, but I can do without mourning doves, or as I call them – pigeons. I thought we got rid of them when we left the city. But apparently, they followed the U-Haul. One way to keep them off the feeder is with pigeon guards. With no hulls on the ground, they won’t even gather at the feeder area.
sign about doves
I knew I could taunt my husband with this some day. Unless an ornithologist corrects me, my research (and this wonderful sign from a Maui botanical garden) confirm it: Mourning doves are pigeons!
  • Winter suet attracts birds that don’t eat seed, such as jays, bluebirds, woodpeckers and nuthatches. It costs less than peanut butter, maybe even if you make your own feeders. But if you enjoy making feeders with kids or grandkids, having lots of choices and spots for birds is good for them and fun for you! Suet cakes can go in cage feeders, or more protective wooden ones. Suet also comes in logs, or if you have lots of time on your hands, you can walk out each morning and smear it on a tree.
  • I like to purchase nonmelting suet because some of our winter days get warm and spring can be whacky, with really cold days and nights that alternate with warm days.
  • Our finches tend to disappear in winter, but I left out a sock filled with niger, or thistle, seed that I had just filled before it turned cold. I’ve seen a few finches and sparrows on it.
  • Some articles suggest ground feeders, but I am too concerned about attracting critters (including my dogs) with the seeds to try that one. Next year, I would like to find a spot for a platform feeder, however. I guess some birds can eat while swinging around, but there are some that do better with nuts and fruit on a nice plate, such as cardinals and jays. I’m hoping they’ll try standing on top of my stackable feeder and pecking on some nuts and cranberries!
WIld Birds Unlimited Flying Start feeder
Our Pyrruloxia found the suet and nut feeder yesterday and tried a bite. He’s back in the garden this morning, distracting me while I try to write about him.

Finally, birds need water all year long, and it’s hard to come by anywhere that nights dip below freezing. It’s especially tough in places like New Mexico, where water is scarce as it is. Birds need drinking water and to splash around for feather maintenance (check out a bird pool party I filmed and placed on Instagram). Those feathers keep them insulated at night, and I want them to stay healthy. Our river is running full and fast, but I don’t think there are pools of water down there for small birds. Our bird bath has been a big hit, but it has frozen over every night for several weeks. I’m wasting water when I toss the frozen chunk, and I don’t like to waste water. Heated bird baths or electric or solar heaters to place in the bird bath are available now. I’ve asked for a solar heater for Christmas, so more on that later. If anybody wants to send me a free one to try, please feel free to do so. The birds and I would be so grateful!