Favorite Xeric Plant: Salvia

The salvias, or sages, include a huge and versatile group of shrubs, ornamentals and herbs. But I want to focus on a few of the xeric ornamentals. Last week, I wrote about a new royal red cultivar from Plant Select. My favorite salvias have deep, red or purple flower spikes and survive in the chilly nights and dry heat of the high desert and intermountain zones.

Most salvias attract bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. Several varieties are perennial in cooler zones, but others work only as annuals.

Purple salvia

Purple salvia cultivars (Salvia X sylvestris) include the popular “May night” meadow sage, which has been popular since 1956. I believe that’s the type of salvia that comes up in our garden each year. Other varieties such as a new sylvestris called “Little Night” are compact bloomers with the same striking indigo blue or violet color. They usually begin blooming in spring. Cutting the flower spikes close the ground as they begin to fade can stimulate a second round of blooms. Another purple salvia called West Texas cobalt sage (Salvia reptans) grows in zone 5 through 10 and is a native of the mountains of west Texas. Its foliage is different from many salvias, resembling grass more than leaves. By early fall, spikes of deep cobalt blue flowers open and attract hummingbirds. The plant has deep roots, making it a great choice for xeric gardens.

purple salvia in xeric garden

Salvia sylvestris, with deep purple blooms all summer, is a showy xeric plant.

Cherry sage

The cherry sage or autumn sage (Salvia gregii) is a popular small shrub in Texas and New Mexico. Although labeled semi-evergreen, most of the leaves drop off during winter in zones 6 and 7. It’s drought tolerant, but produces more flowers and a bushier leaf pattern with some moderate water. Keep this bush in filtered sun for best results, and prune dead flowers throughout its growing season to enjoy more cherry-red or pink- to coral-colored blooms. Planting several together can give you an attractive two-to-three foot hedge.

cherry red sage
Cherry or autumn sage makes a great low shrub in a low-water garden.

New white-blooming salvia

Finally, here’s another reason to love salvias! It’s a new compact salvia called Summer Jewel White (Salvia coccinea) with white blooms all summer that begin earlier than most white salvias. The plant is an All-America Selections 2015 winner based on its attraction of pollinators. I love contrasting white flowers with deep reds and purples. Summer Jewel White is an annual, but it’s low enough (about 10 to 24 inches high) to plant near a May night salvia or cherry sage without blocking the other plant’s blooms.

summer jewel white salvia
Salvia Summer Jewel White is a new annual. Image courtesy of the National Garden Bureau, Inc.

Another great feature of most perennial salvias is that you can easily propagate more by separating mature plants and replanting them. We’ve had a few volunteers crop up near our mature plant that we plan to move to another area of the garden.

Don’t Be Afraid To Prune Perennials

One of my favorite spring chores is pruning ornamental bushes and shrubs to get them ready for vigorous spring growth. I’ll throw in the caveat that pruning wild rose bushes is not a favorite chore. Even with special gloves made for rose pruning, I manage to stab myself around my upper arm, legs and shoulders. These are some pretty big bushes!

My husband and I have different philosophies on how to prune. He tends to cut a lot of the plant, but does a great job of shaping trees. I tend to underprune and some of the bushes look leggy, with too little growth on the lower portions of the branches. So we try to temper each others’ approaches.

spring blooms in xeric garden
Spring means the apple tree along the river (background) blooms big. It also means time to prune. The green plant in the left foreground was almost as tall as the red bud to the right only a few weeks before.

The best approach, especially in xeric gardens, is to follow the plant’s natural growth pattern. This means avoiding the “haircut” prune, or cutting a plant straight across the top. It’s like topping trees; it makes me crazy. A haircut prune on a bush forces new growth only along the top of the plant.

For deciduous shrubs (those that lose leaves in winter and come back in spring), pruning should include thinning to make sure sun reaches bottom branches and to prevent crossing or rubbing of branches. Gradual renewal pruning involves removing dead and old branches just above ground level each year. You also can trim to shape long branches.

Rejuvenate old plants by cutting up to one-third of the oldest and tallest branches just at or above ground level before new growth starts. Here’s the thing, though: Although experts generally warn against pruning an entire plant all the way to the ground, I have done that for several established woody plants that get long and leggy and have few flowers. I’ll even do it annually with great success.

For example, I trim Russian sages (Perovskia atriplicifolia) to just a few inches above the ground, or just above new growth, each spring and they love it. We had a hibiscus (I’m not sure of the variety, but see below) that we pruned to the ground each fall to help it winter over in Albuquerque. It came back in the spring, with huge, maroon-colored blooms that would cause people to stop on their walks and comment.

hibiscus-pruned-nm-landscape
We trimmed this hibiscus, the plant with the large, deep read blooms, to the ground in the fall to protect it from frost and to produce foliage and blooms.
hibiscus-flower
The hibiscus blooms were beautiful and continuous from mid-summer to early fall.

 

Finally, I trimmed an old and overgrown butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii) to just above the ground last year, and by the end of summer, it was more than six feet tall and full of deep purple blooms, butterflies and hummingbirds.

Butterfly bush trimmed back
Butterfly bush (the woody plant in the back of the first bed) cut back last year nearly to the gtound.

 

Butterfly bush after hard pruning
Here’s the same bush in September from the other side. It’s happy, and so are the hummingbirds and butterflies.

Every plant differs in just how much to prune and when to prune it. For example, most of our xeric plants enjoy a cut in early spring. I wait until I see a little new growth appearing and then bring out my pruning shears. But we have a few forsythia bushes, which bloom early, but should be pruned after they bloom. And most evergreen shrubs need only some thinning.

Be sure to use clean bypass pruners and loppers on your plants, and clean after each use, especially if you cut any diseased branches.

Buying Garden Plants: Big-box Store Vs Local

A few days ago, I wrote a post about the Plant Select recommended and new introductions for 2015. Plant Select, up in Denver, evaluates how well these plants perform at high altitude and with less water, and also whether the plants are native to North America. And they encourage gardeners to support local nurseries. I couldn’t agree more.

Let’s take a look at the reasons why it’s often best to buy plants from local nurseries, along with reasons why it’s sometimes better to purchase at the Big Box store.

First, supporting your local nursery is the same as supporting your local grocery store, electrician or restaurant. It’s neighborly and the right thing to do, especially if you also own a local business. The major reason for gardeners to buy locally is to ensure they find native plant selections for their area. I can’t tell you how many times I have wandered into a chain store’s nursery area and shaken my head in wonder. It’s obvious that the store’s buyers know little about New Mexico, or perhaps lumped the state together as one zone, or maybe with Phoenix. That’s crazy! Some plants wouldn’t make it here, or might work as an annual, and others use too much water.

When buying from local shops run by people who live in your community and who usually are quite knowledgeable, you may have less selection, but what you lack in quantity, you gain in quality. I’m not necessarily saying the plants are always better quality – we’ll get to that. But the plant selection likely is confined to native plants for your area, or at least to plants most likely to succeed in local gardens.

 

Native nursery in Tucson, Ariz.
Shopping at a local native nursery in Tucson, Ariz.

So, when do you buy local and when do you buy from big chains? It’s a matter of personal choice, and every town is different. So this is based purely on my opinion and experiences: If I want a lot of annual flowers to fill a large bed or several containers, I might be more likely to buy those from a chain. I don’t need the quality of a longstanding perennial, and I want some variety. Chances are most annuals can make it through the season. I save money that way.

For a solid perennial, especially in a unique situation and one I’ve never grown before, I would head to the local nursery for advice and a quality selection. Chances are I will find staff with good knowledge of my zone and climate and how to care for the plant. I’ll pay more, but that’s OK if it’s a good quality plant, especially because I’m also getting the right, native plant and some free advice thrown in.

Some local nurseries grow their own stock. That also can be good, if they know what they’re doing and care for their plants well. But if you have a few bad experiences with a nursery’s plants and are paying higher prices, try another local garden source or seek advice from local Master Gardeners and extension offices and find your plants elsewhere, maybe in a nearby larger town, but still from an independent nursery. You can’t beat word-of-mouth recommendations when it comes to nurseries. They all look awesome as you drive up!

Plant Select 2015 Plants for High-Altitude Gardens

I’ve written before about how the harsh environment of the high desert and foothills of the Rocky Mountains affects plants. But I’ve got good news! The brilliant folks at Plant Select,have announced their new plants and recommendations for 2015. Plant Select is a nonprofit source of plant selections that thrive in the High Plains and Intermountain regions and in a range of conditions, including low water. I’ve summarized a few of my favorites:

Coral baby penstemon (Penstemon x “Coral baby”). This is a new plant with upright spikes of coral-pink flowers that bloom from May through July in Zones 5 – 8. It takes moderate to dry water conditions once established and prefers sandy, well-drained soil. I love to see hummingbirds on penstenoms. Plant Select says Coral baby also attracts bees and butterflies. The plant was selected by breeder Kelly Grummons of Denver, who specializes in xeric plants.

 

Coral baby penstemon, a new introduction from Plant Select for 2015.
Plant Select’s 2015 Coral baby penstemon for Zones 5 to 8. Image courtesy of Pat Hayward, Plant Select.

WINDWALKER royal red salvia (Salvia darcyi x S. microphylla). I like that this hummingbird attracter is deer resistant. Plant Select says that it produces blood-red blooms from June through October in Zones 5 to 9. Cutting the salvia back in early summer can reduce its height (which can reach up to 58 inches). WINDWALKER salvia likes full sun and is moderate to xeric in water needs. It’s also from Kelly Grummons of Denver.

Plant Select's new WINDWALKER Royal red salvia is a moderate to xeric beauty.
Plant Select’s WINDWALKER Royal red salvia, a new plant for 2015 that produces blood-red blooms all summer.

WINDWALKER big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii “P002S” grass. This new introduction from Plant Select for 2015. Bluestem grass is one of the most beautiful ornamental grasses, and grasses can make a great statement in a xeric landscape. I especially love them near walkways or up against rocks. The powdery blue foliage on the WINDWALKER big bluestem can grow up to 6 feet tall in Zones 5 to 8. We left our bluestem through fall and enjoyed the dried foliage in the winter wind, then cut it back to the ground in early spring. It grew back, but was not as hardy the next year. This variety was selected by Sunscapes Nursery, and should reward with purple plumes in fall. It should get by with moderate water or dry conditions.

Windwalker big bluestem from Plant Select, a new grass for 2015 that's perfect for a xeric garden.
Plant Select’s new introduction WINDWALKER big bluestem grass is a perfect choice for a breezy xeric garden. Image courtesy of Scott Skogerboe and Plant Select.

Engelmann’s daisy (Engelmannia peristenia). This is one of several recommended plants from Plant Select for 2015. Because it’s native, it should adapt to high desert climates and water conditions. These grow wild at our place and when we head out to mow down weeds, we try to mow around them. They grow about 2 feet tall and are filled with yellow daisy blooms in late summer that attract pollinators. In the garden, plant them in part shade to full sun in Zones 5 through 10.

Engelmann's daisy, a native wildflower of the Southern Great Plains, is among the 2015  Plant Select recommendations. Image courtesy of Pat Hayward and Plant Select.
Engelmann’s daisy, one of Plant Select’s recommended plants for 2015 because of its adaptability to all sorts of conditions.

Visit Plant Select to learn more about their selection process and 2015 recommendations. I’ll probably include a few more in future posts. And if you live in the high desert or intermountain West, ask your local nursery if they stock any of the Plant Select recommendations.