5 Tips for Choosing the Right Container for Your Plants

containers-austin-garden
Talavera, clay and metal pottery mix well on these garden shelves and walls.

If you’re like me, you often choose a container based on how much you like it or its color. Those are good reasons; after all, you want to enjoy your purchase when it’s in your home or on your patio. And the color might be important to curb appeal or your entryway statement. But it helps to keep in mind a few other tips for container choices based on:

small-tomato-plant-marigolds-large-container
This large container didn’t look sparse for long. The tomato grew and the marigolds spread.

Container Size

Some plants need a container large enough to support a plant’s growth. For example, even patio tomatoes need a pot about 12 inches in diameter.  The diameter is not always listed. A 10-inch container equates to about 3 gallons, and a 14-inch container to nearly 7 gallons, but it depends on the depth. As a general rule, go for about 5 gallons for container-grown tomatoes.

In 2004, standards were released to help ensure more consistent labeling from nurseries. For example, a 1-gallon potted plant is about 152 to 251 cubic inches, taking into account diameter and depth. Be sure to consider the mature size of plants when arranging containers.  For single plants, purchase a container at least a size larger than the one a plant comes in. There are exceptions, however.

burro-tail-succulent-containers
Many cacti and succulents need smaller pots to confine root growth; it’s fun to be creative with color and shape.

Some plants prefer crowded roots. Many succulents will fail to grow and flower if placed in a container that is too large. When in too large a pot, all the plant’s energy goes to the easiest activity – growing more roots. This means less energy can go into producing growth above the soil line. So, try not to go more than 10% larger than the size of the succulent. And keep in mind some succulents have tap roots and need enough depth for those roots to grow and seek water.

The same goes for a totally unrelated plant: the African violet. Violets do best with crowded roots and need good drainage, just like succulents. Place an African violet in a container smaller than the diameter of the leaves (those who grow the plants for shows generally choose containers one-third the diameter of the foliage). And repot plants like African violets every so often, gradually increasing container size as needed. Don’t take a violet (or succulent) in a 3-inch pot up to 10 inches in one repotting.

petunias-round-clay-pot
I love these shallow clay pots, but many plant roots need more depth.

Container Shape

Look at the container depth as well as its diameter. I love the look of shallow terracotta containers, but they only work with annuals and shallow-rooted plants. Those violets and many rosette-shaped succulents also can take shallower shapes. But your tomato needs good depth to form large, healthy roots. I’ve pulled up cherry tomato roots that were at least 15 inches long. And if your cactus has a tap root, make sure the pot’s height can allow for growth.

Container shape also affects plant placement and the overall appeal of the container. A tall container looks best with at least one tall plant element and maybe a trailing one.

glazed-container-table-containers-on-steps
Glazed pots can look colorful and elegant. and mix nicely with terracotta.

Container Material

Clay or terracotta pots are excellent for indoor or outdoor succulents. They dry out quickly because the sides are porous. These pots usually are your best bet for drought-tolerant plants, but not for vegetables or many ornamental flowers. And African violets in clay pots often dry out too quickly. Plastic and fabric pots are less expensive and lighter. The material’s weight is a consideration for any plant you know you might have to move to change sun or shade exposure, or bring indoors in winter.

metal-pitcher-succulent
It’s fun to create containers, but even succulent containers need some drainage.

Container Drainage

All containers need good drainage, even those you use for succulents. Few plants do well sitting in wet soil for long. If you repurpose a container, be sure to drill some holes in the bottom. And try not to let the container (especially a shallow one) sit in a full saucer if you use one to catch drainage. If your container appears to drain too quickly, change how you water – a little at a time repeated once or twice. Always add water to a container at a slow rate instead of a heavy pour. Drenching the container makes soil nutrients run right out with the water.

green-yellow-blue-containers on shelf
Lucinda Hutson’s Austin garden is one of the most colorful I’ve seen. I love the color of the paint with the three container colors.

Container Color

I have decided to go more colorful with container choices from now on. It’s tempting to “match” an entry or house color, or to have a container blend in on your patio. Sometimes, though, you can make a really bold statement by choosing a container that is bright, colorful (like Talavera pottery) or a nice contrast to plants inside and around it.

containers-patio-old-man-cactus-inside
The old man cactus (right) still thrives, although we have potted it up a few times.

Finally, if you find a container that will look perfect in a spot because of its color, shape or pattern, but maybe the wrong material or size for your plant, try slipping another pot inside it. I even did that once several years ago when I wanted to add an “old man cactus” (Cephalocereus senilis) to some annuals in a decorative entry-way container. I knew its watering needs were different, so I set the cactus pot into the soil of the larger pot and never really watered above it. The plant received plenty of moisture from the soil around its container. Then, I pulled the old man out in fall and we potted him inside for winter. He still is thriving, now in a terracotta pot with other cacti.

 

 

For Valentine’s Day: 5 Plants With Red Flowers

native rose in bud vase

Roses are red for Valentine’s Day, but there are other plants, including houseplants, bulbs and a few xeric plants that make great Valentine’s Day gifts with their deep red blooms.

Here are my favorites:

Cherry Sage

cherry-sage-bush-in-bloom
Cherry sage, a salvia, is a drought-tolerant plant with bright red flowers.

This xeric salvia (Salvia gregii) is a garden stunner. Add one to your rock garden for all-season color in most regions of the Southwest (zones 6 through 10). Hot lips sage is a perfect plant for lovers with bright red and white blooms.

Poppy

red-poppies
Poppies are beautiful growing in the Southwest garden or pressed in a Valentine card!

Red or Iceland poppies are perfect flowers for pressing and can last a bit as a cut flower. Papaver rhoeas (Red or Shirley Poppy) is a gorgeous complement to other flowers in the garden or planted in a bunch for a bright red meadow.

Geranium

red-geranium-blooms-leaves
Geranium comes in deep shades or red or bright pink and coral.

Geraniums come with deep maroon red, fire engine red or pink flowers. Plant a red geranium and a white geranium in a container for your Valentine. These plants can stay outside in spring or summer in most areas of the Southwest will continue to bloom inside in winter if left in a sunny window. I like to cut the bloom stalk near where the flowers begin and float it in a clear glass container filled with water.

African Violet

red-african-violet-flower-leaves
Tomahawk is a hybrid of the late Kent Stork. The flower is such a deep, rich red.

If the symmetrical rosettes of leaves topped by pretty flowers are not enough (and they should be) to brighten any home or heart, the plant names might do the trick. There are thousands of varieties of African violets hybridized by pros and amateurs with fun registered names. Hybridizers name the violets after loved ones, hobbies and the plant characteristics. There are plenty of varieties with pink and reddish flowers (not just purple ones) .

Amaryllis

amaryllis-blossom-red
The giant, red flower of a holiday Amaryllis.

Many varieties of the winter-blooming bulb come in solid red or white with red or coral streaks. Although most are raised to bloom around the holidays, they can bloom later if dormant and dark for a while, or have a second bloom. I have one that bloomed like crazy in December but has another bud coming up that likely will open just after Valentine’s Day.

red-gladiola-bloom
Gladiolas have gorgeous flowers up and down a strong stem.

Although cut flowers are nice, a plant that can grow on in your garden or home makes a perfect gift for your Valentine. Tulips open outdoors in early spring, and even Claret cup cacti have gorgeous red blooms. My all-time favorite cutting flower is the gladiola and a nice guilty pleasure in an otherwise low-water garden (and protected from munching deer). Or try giving your loved one an anthurium, the tropical plant with a red heart-shaped flower!

5 Reasons Succulents Make Great Gifts

Not sure what to give a loved one, friend or co-worker as a holiday gift? You can’t beat succulents. Here are five reasons why:

1. Easy care, even for brown thumbs.

 

Although succulents can die, they are easier to care for than most plants. You can kill them only with kindness (too much water). And even leaves of heat-loving succulents can burn in direct sun. But they make great gifts for people who want a little green but have less than green thumbs. Keep it simple with common succulents like Echevaria or Sempervivum. Both plants come in pretty rosette shapes.

echevaria-sempervivum-in-small-clay-pots
Many succulents have pretty rosette shapes.

2. Succulents make people smile.

Partly because they’re easy, and maybe because of their fleshy, healthy-looking leaves or pads, these plants bring a touch of natural, living matter to the dullest setting. You can find popular ways of displaying succulents as décor. And if the recipient likes to live on the edge, a nice spiny cactus is a fun gift that could be the gateway to growing more houseplants.

guitar-made-of-succulents-on-wall
Succulent Love on display at Austin’s Articulture

3. Succulents grow in lots of container types.

A few weeks ago, I posted about growing cacti in containers. Succulents are so easy to plant in natural, pretty or quirky containers. Small ones can grow in tiny holes of rocks or driftwood. Air plants are even easier to grow in unique containers, since they require no soil.

succulents-in-white-containers
I love these white geometric succulent containers on a patio table in an Austin garden.

4. Adding a personal touch is easy.

So, maybe the succulent you choose for a gift isn’t so unique, but you plant it in a coffee cup with a message, or a souvenir that has sentimental value. You can use your sense of humor or a little romance when choosing how to present a small succulent – or several. Or select one based on the name (maybe String of Pearls?) You also can make your gift more personal with a small set of instructions on how to care for the plant. You can look for information online or write up how you take care of succulents.

succulent-in-metal-container
An old metal container with sentimental value holds this succulent.

5. They’re popular and available.

The trend in succulent plantings, arrangements and decoration on all sorts of materials might not last forever. But while it does, it is easy to find a great selection of succulents for gift-giving.

succulents on nursery shelf
Your local nursery greenhouse is sure to be loaded with lots of succulent choices.

Here are some favorite small succulents:

Echevaria, several varieties

Sempervivum (such as hens and chicks)

Sedum morganianum (Burro’s tail)

Euphorbia milii (Crown of Thorns) and it is thorny!

Crassula ovata (Jade plant)

Mamillaria crinita (Pincushion cactus)

Haworthia fasciata (Zebra plant)

haworthia-foliage
Harowthia is such a fun succulent, and it can send up a stem with yellow flowers.

Zwartkop (Aenonium arboretum)

Also, Tillandsias (airplants) come in lots of types and colors.

 

It’s Getting Cold Out, So Garden Indoors

The leaves are falling, but you don’t have to sink into winter doldrums. You can keep up your green thumb and all the joy you get from growing with indoor plants. All that greenery inside your house is much more cheerful than the brown landscape and bare trees outside. So fill your home with green and flowers.

geranium and houseplants on table.
Fall is the time to bring geraniums, succulents and other houseplants indoors — and then find a spot for them!

Here are a few ideas on how to extend the season and ease into winter slowly.

Adjust houseplant conditions

Even houseplants that live indoors all year might need some winter preparation. This includes cutting back on watering and fertilizing and cleaning leaves to allow as much light as possible to reach the plant. Because winter days are shorter, and the sun in the northern hemisphere is lower, you might have to move plants to different windows or supplement their light with grow lights. And be sure not to overwater houseplants in winter. Most need a break to rest, and only need water when the soil dries out.

succulent arrangement
These succulents spend winter indoors near a warm wall and sunny window. We can move them around as the sun moves up or down in the southern sky.

Move container plants inside

We move inside any plant we love and think can make it at least a few months inside. It helps if it is not too heavy to move. This includes many succulents that can’t take low temperatures, geraniums, and plants that tolerate shade. We had a gorgeous coleus container we brought inside one year. It got leggy, but we were able to enjoy it for a few months more than if we had discarded it.

barrel cactus and aloe in containers
Most of our succulents can’t handle the cold winter lows in zone 6B, so they come inside for winter.

Harvest or grow edibles

Pick green tomatoes if still viable on the vine and let them ripen indoors, fry them up or make a tomato sauce starter. Making pesto is fun, but you also can cut basil branches and place in a jar of water for extended life. If canning is your thing, it feels good to prep for winter by preserving fruits and vegetables. When you miss your summer garden, visit the dark cool area where the jars of your preserved crops are stored. You can grow sprouts in glass jars to “summer up” sandwiches and salads.

herb garden vertical
This sunny room in my daughter’s house is perfect for houseplants and herbs.
chives and basil in window
You can extend the season for some herbs inside. Or look for lights and systems that help you grow herbs and microgreens all year.

Take cuttings of favorite plants

That coleus that got too big and lanky? We could have rooted new coleus plants from cuttings instead of bringing the mature plant inside. There’s a fun indoor project! In fact, try taking cuttings of favorite plants and starting them indoors. Not all plants are easy to propagate, but with some practice, you can start your own plants for the next spring.

Succulents often bloom in winter and early spring, adding color to your indoor gardens.

Buy a new houseplant

African violets can bloom almost continuously if they receive enough sun and consistent, light moisture and repotting as needed. There are thousands of varieties with different bloom colors and styles and variegated leaves. Many succulents bloom in winter (such as Christmas cactus) or in spring, when you’re really itching to get outside and grow. Both succulents and African violets also are easy to grow from leaf cuttings, though the technique is very different for each.

violet succulent
African violets and succulents are easy to start from cuttings.

Plant Problems: Don’t Blame Yourself

I believe many people avoid outdoor gardening or growing houseplants because they believe everything they grow must grow quickly, flower prolifically and look like the images they see on Pinterest and Instagram.

papaver-poppy bloom pink
Beautiful poppy from wildflower mix. I have posted lots of photos of these on Instagram. But I didn’t mention it took more than five tries to get this wildflower mix to finally take!

First of all, people post their BEST images on social media. For example, I pinch off dead leaves or spent blooms and only show the best part of the frame. Many photos I see are heavily edited and filtered as well. So, let’s get real about gardening, and talk about reasons plants can fail to flower or die. Some of these you can control, and some you just can’t.

pouring rain in new mexico garden
When it finally rained, it poured, flooding our garden paths. Note the lack of blooms on the rose bushes in front left of this photo.

Rain or lack of rain. In the Southwest, we can water only much so much, and must rely on weather, which is more than unpredictable. We water our xeric plants once as they begin to grow in spring, and then reserve water for edibles, containers and new plants. We pretty much rely on nature for everything else.

This year was dry all winter and spring, meaning less grass and more of several weeds (especially the horrible goatheads, or Tribulus terrestris, also called puncture vines) have taken over. We are doing all we can to control them, but are losing. Last year, the grass filled in better, leaving less space for the weeds. And we could easily stirrup hoe young weeds as they popped up. This year, drought followed by a downpour washed thousands of the seeds all over the place, especially to low-lying areas. When rain comes in deluges, many xeric plants respond and reward. But rain at night or a week of cloudy, soggy days can cause some problems in xeric plants like root rot, leaf mold or leggy growth.

hybrid and wild roses in xeric garden
Here are the same roses in early September of the same year. Rain does what our watering can’t, and these are loaded with blooms at the time they usually begin to fade.

Hot and cold extremes. I’m sure temperature has had something to do with the rose blooms, too. Plant information typically is based on the lowest cold temperature a perennial can withstand in winter, not necessarily the effect of heat on the plant. Plus, natives are used to typical temperature rises in early summer, peak heat in mid-summer and cooling temperatures by late summer to early fall. Here’s what happened this summer in much of New Mexico: We had unusually stifling and dry heat in early June. That’s right about the time we planted our vegetable garden and some new ornamentals. We were a week or two late because of vacation, but still, it is not supposed to hit nearly 100 degrees in June here. Then, just as has happened in summers past, the rain and cool temps came late, once fruit had formed on our tomatoes. They don’t ripen as well in cool temperatures. Looks like lots of fried green tomatoes this fall.

basil leaf with brown spots
We depend on basil leaves to be pretty and look edible. This one had some sort of sucking pest on it. I have to cover all my basil all year long.

Critters of all types and sizes. I’ve written lots about critters, especially deer and gopher damage. But insects also seem to thrive in certain conditions that we cannot control. I didn’t see a single hornworm this summer on my tomatoes or potatoes, which is great but weird. But we had a mealy bug infestation. Yes, the potted plant pests showed up in the ground in our garden, attacking soft woody plants, especially our gaillardia. We had to pull the plants up because of damage and to control their spread.

red and green foliage on Chinese pistachio tree
A beautiful Chinese pistache in full fall color. It’s supposed to be deer proof. Maybe the leaves, but…

Deer eat plants and rub antlers on trunks. Gophers don’t just damage roots when they eat them. The tunnels they dig underground can have lasting effects. We’ve had a few areas of our garden where nothing we plant seems to make it. Some of this might be the soil, but we finally figured out there is a huge gopher tunnel network right below where we’ve been planting – the water rushes down through the tunnel, leaving too little for plant roots.

chines pistache tree after deer damage
Here is the same tree as above. Unfortunately, we added the fence after the deer damage. They killed the trunk by rubbing their antlers on it, and only suckers grow below the damage.

A bad start. Maybe you were unaware of the best location for a new plant or how to prep your soil. That happens, plus conditions change. When a tree grows rapidly, it begins to cast shade further out, often shading a plant so much it doesn’t grow or flower as it did three years ago. There’s nothing wrong with the plant; it just needs a little more sun. It’s also possible that a dying plant didn’t stand a chance from the time you purchased it. Sometimes, diseases hide in plant containers or the plants are root bound and have a hard time bouncing back. Give them time.

Overwatering plants. Overwatering often is the reason houseplants, succulents and xeric plants do poorly. It’s our instinct to add water when a plant looks unhealthy, but it is not always the best solution. Plants like African violets need consistent but light moisture or to dry between waterings, so I’ve repotted some with wicks (see more from the African Violet Society). If the water source is deep enough, you might be able to fill the well and water your succulents on the same weekly cycle, taking the guesswork out of it.

violet start and violet flowers pink
An overhead view of a new African violet transpant (Frosted Denim) with wick watering. When my Rhapsodie Nancy’s blooms fade, I will repot it to have a wick as well.

Always keep in mind that with gardening, the perfect photos you see often are like selfies of your friends. You know what your friend looks like with no makeup on, after all. But she’s still beautiful to you and a dear friend, so you view the selfie from a realistic standpoint. Bingo! Don’t compare your plants, garden or landscape to the ones you see in gardening books or the web. And don’t worry so much about perfection; enjoy the journey.

chewed up lettuce starts
With all else equal in this raised bed, I can only guess the squirrels liked one type of lettuce better than others.

Finally, even if a factor you can control added to the plant’s demise, don’t give up on the variety of plant, or especially on gardening! Even the most expert gardeners lose plants sometimes. Just learn and move on.