We’ve been busy prepping our lawn and gardens for a wedding. Our daughter, Rebecca, married the love of her life, Dave Higgins, last weekend here in Ruidoso Downs. I had to post some photos, most of which are courtesy of family and our outstanding professional photographer and friend, Jessica Inman. See links to photo credits and local services at the end.
Many thanks to all family and friends who helped us out, especially Jenny Ruiz, Kathy and Dave Toupal and Jeri Baker.
The following Ruidoso and Albuquerque businesses helped make the Higgins Ruidoso Downs wedding possible:
People who love gardening know that winter and early spring can drag on and on. So it’s good to have a project in your back pocket to get outside and improve the garden during the off-season. I’ll share our experience and give a few tips on creating or replacing your own garden path.
The weedy gravel walkways in our rock garden needed help. We replaced the old with new landscape fabric and crusher fine, also called decomposed granite. There were several reasons for the project, mostly the weeds I mentioned.
We estimate that the original paths, installed by the previous owners of our property, were about 10 years old. The weeds and grasses began to poke through the thin landscape fabric and I spent nearly all of my free time bent over pulling weeds out of rocks.
We needed to get the new path in before spring planting. And we were done ahead of schedule after:
Spending 2 to 3 months cleaning out old rock and installing new crusher fine.
Moving and replacing more than 500 border rocks.
Laying about 10.5 rolls of 50-foot landscape fabric.
Adding nearly 200 new pavers.
Hauling and shoveling more wheelbarrow loads of old gravel and new crusher fine than we could count.
Reasons for crusher fine
Crusher fines are just that – small particles of crushed rock. So although it might seem crazy to replace rock with rock, hear me out. The landscape gravel was made up of rocks about three-fourths inch in diameter. These let sun, air, water, and especially weed seeds filter down through the layers and held just enough blowing dirt in to feed the seeds. A thin fabric can only do so much to stop weeds from taking root, especially once any tear in the fabric occurs.
Crusher fines are made of tinier particles and dust, so after you level and tamp them down, the surface evens out and compacts, forming a hard layer that feels more like concrete than rock, but maintaining a rocky, natural appearance. To help prevent weeds, the layer has to be thick – we tried to keep it at two to three inches all the way around. Crusher fine also comes in landscape colors, although we had to pay plenty to have ours trucked in from 45 miles away.
Using landscape fabric
The thin landscape fabrics available in big-box stores don’t cut it in most situations for weed control. We ordered ours online from Greenhouse Megastore. It’s Weed Barrier brand with a 20-year warranty.
The fabric is touted as great for xeriscaping and allows air, water, and nutrients through, but blocks light. Since we used it in a path, we didn’t care about light (and less is best for weed seeds) but we didn’t want standing water. Both the fabric and crusher fine are water permeable, so the water seeps down, eventually back into the ground.
The fabric was heavy duty but easy to work with for the most part. Our garden is a circle, with smaller circles and curves throughout. My theory is that any crack/slit/opening in the fabric is an invitation to a hardy weed like field bindweed. But to make curves, you have to carefully slit and overlap the fabric. The fewer cuts the better.
So, out with the old and in with the new. The worst part of the project was scraping, shoveling and hauling off the old gravel. And what do you do with several tons of rocks? Our first step was to repurpose the old gravel in a few beds (over landscape fabric and with cuts for plants) and to add depth to another path in the front yard that has the same gravel. No way we could tackle it too, and I hope that by adding to the depth, we made it a little more difficult for weeds to root. Someday, we’ll have to move that gravel again and replace it with crusher fine. But not today. Or this month or this year…
We also hauled loads of the old gravel to our vegetable garden and dumped it on strips of fabric left over to cut down on mud and weeds in the walkways. As for the rest, it’s in a pile, waiting for friends to claim it or for Craig’s List.
Here are a few tips on creating a garden path with crusher fines:
If you can design your own path, consider gentle curves when possible. Circles are tough. Mention this to a landscape architect if you have one, so you can be ready to replace the path when the time comes or get an estimate of the cost for a landscape company to do so.
Invest in professional quality landscape fabric.
Work in sections, leaving fabric in the longest continual length possible, which might mean leaving the roll at the end of a section. (We just turned the wheelbarrow upside down over the roll to protect it from deer damage.)
Overlap the fabric by several inches at cuts and intersections, and try to avoid large folds.
Get some fabric under borders such as pavers, even if it means lifting and replacing the hardscape.
Place border rocks or pavers on fabric before adding crusher fine.
Work in sections to spread crusher fine in a thick, even layer. We used the back (straight edge) of a bow rake.
Invest in a tamper (ours was about $40).
Spray the crusher fine with water before your last tamp. It helps bind the crusher fine mix. (And the color of the path really comes out after rain.)
Keep a small pile of crusher fine handy for a few weeks, or at least after a few rains. You might find low spots or phantom folds poking through. Just add a few shovels to the spot and level it with the existing crusher fine.
And then enjoy! It’s like a dream to walk on and has a really neat appearance.
When approaching a new landscaping or planting project, it helps to gather ideas, whether you do so virtually or hopefully in person. A top benefit of being a member of the Association for Garden Communicators (GWA) is access to botanical, demonstration and private gardens.
If you travel, you can gather plenty of ideas from around the country. Even when I’ve visited the Northwest or Southeast, I’ve always found plant and design ideas or just enjoyed the gardens! If you want practical ideas you can apply in your own backyard, nothing beats a local botanical or extension demonstration garden.
Benefits of Demonstration and Botanical Gardens
Many botanical and demonstration gardens are designed primarily to educate. Extension master gardeners typically have demonstration gardens featuring native and zone-appropriate plants for their area. The city of Scottsdale, Arizona, has a xeriscape garden to demonstrate how local residents can save outdoor water use but have attractive lawns. The Albuquerque, New Mexico, Botanic Garden includes a demonstration farm that re-creates a 1930s farmstead to show how people can grow or raise their own food. And I love the Pollination Gardens at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson.
The Tucson pollination garden teaches visitors about planting for pollinators, including Monarch butterflies. Most demonstration gardens help visitors learn about plants and especially how to grow them locally. But if you really pay attention, you also can learn a lot about design, containers and especially which plants or collections get you excited about gardening. Most gardens also offer classes or guided tours to add to the learning experience.
Finally, taking children to demonstration gardens can spark the gardening bug, especially for growing food. In fact, a study of demonstration gardens started by North Carolina county extension staff showed that between 2006 and 2010, the number of gardens made up of edible plants outpaced those with ornamental plants only or a mix of edible and ornamental plants to teach families about growing food.
Many demonstration gardens are run by extension offices of universities and the state extension’s master gardeners. Often, universities, cities and counties have gardens that serve dual purposes of beautifying office or park landscapes and teaching residents about gardening or local issues such as conserving water, saving pollinators, container gardening, producing food or gardening more sustainably. Hospitals can have meditation gardens on their grounds or demonstration kitchen gardens to help patients and families learn about growing healthy vegetables.
Others might be organized by private entities, and if touring an entire botanical garden seems overwhelming to the beginning gardener, or the gardener’s toddler, botanical gardens offer demonstration gardens within their exhibits. Visitors can make their way to the gardens on the map that interest them most. Remember, many demonstration and botanical gardens rely heavily on volunteers and fundraising to maintain their plantings.
Virtual Demonstration Gardens
Major botanical gardens might offer virtual tours, a nice tool if you can’t visit them in person and are researching local native or adapted plants for your own garden. If you’re on Twitter or Facebook, you also can follow favorite demonstration or botanical gardens and see photos or live videos. Or you can join an online community such as Plants Map to connect with other gardeners, organizations or resources that interest you. Organizations such as botanical gardens also set up collections on Plants Map.
Groundcovers might not be as sexy or exciting to plant as some ornamentals, but the low-growing plants are useful and can really add to a xeric garden’s look and function.
Here are a few reasons and ways to use groundcovers:
Water savings: erosion control. On garden slopes, a low-growing groundcover slows the flow of water. Use one that’s relatively drought tolerant and the plant absorbs enough water from the flow to get by. An added bonus – slopes can be difficult to mow, and a low-growing groundcover needs less maintenance.
Water savings: mulch effect. Groundcovers cool the soil below and retain some moisture, which can work as a sort of living mulch under a tree or other plant that needs cooler roots.
Turf alternative: Groundcovers typically are less invasive and easier to control than grass, especially between flagstone or other steps.
Weed control. Once a groundcover blankets an area, weeds have a harder time growing in the same spot. It might not entirely eliminate them, but eventually weed seeds have a harder time getting into covered soil and receive less light.
Design element. Groundcovers can add color, year-round interest and an area of low growth in the foreground of a design or near paths. Check out this gorgeous example of creeping thyme as an alternative lawn in a xeric design.
Creeping thyme (Thymus ‘Pink Chintz’). This is an excellent choice for filling in around flagstone steps or any area that takes foot traffic (see link above). In fact, several thyme varieties are considered steppable. Creeping thyme does fine with low water once it’s established, but if it receives more water, it grows more rapidly, which might help to fill in an area.
Ice plant (Delosperma). The flowers of ice plants are delicate and bright, coming in yellow, bright pink or salmon and rust colors. Although some varieties of ice plant need a little more water than others, most can get by in xeric rock gardens. Ice plant is a rapid spreader and easy to maintain. If it grows outside the area you intend, just clip it off. Or pull up a stalk and its roots and move it to another spot in your garden.
Perky Sue (Tetraneuris scaposa). Although Perky Sue might not technically be a groundcover, it can spread enough to add floral color and evergreen foliage. I’ve seen this or a nearly identical plant called plenty of other names, including Hymenoxys scaposa, bitterweed, and narrow four-leaf nerve daisy. It’s also similar to the Angelita daisy (T. acaulis).
Prairie zinnia (Zinnia grandiflora). Also called desert zinnia, this is a favorite rock garden groundcover of mine. It has tiny, thread-like leaves and bright yellow flowers. Most of all, it spreads from the previous year’s plant; you simply remove the spent foliage as the weather warms and you see new green beneath the old. It can spread up to 6 or 10 feet.
Plumbago (Ceratostigma plumbaginoides). The best part of plumbago is its fall color. The purple flowers typically bloom in early fall and then the leaves redden. Plumbago also does best in shade or part (afternoon) shade in warmer areas.
All of these groundcovers are perennial and hardy to zone 6 or cooler. Groundcovers can require some patience or money. For carpet-like coverage, you either have to plant many of them fairly close together, or ideally space new plants according to planting instructions and wait for them to fill in. Some also have minds of their own. To me, the haphazard growth is more natural looking in a rock or xeric garden. But if you’re going for a formal look, choose one that’s easier to control, such as thyme.
Spring has come early to New Mexico this year. We’re been breaking records for high temperatures. That’s been so nice and has really improved my mood. I’ll even consider it lucky, since we have lots to accomplish before summer.
Of course, our average last frost is around May 10, and April 15 in Albuquerque. So I fear all of the pretty flowers on the fruit trees will freeze at the worst possible time. Or that my impatience with cleaning up and lightly pruning xeric perennials will backfire. I choose to remain optimistic.
Enjoy these green (and a few other colors) early spring finds. Just click on any thumbnail to start the slide show.
Growing with organic methods is smart for lots of reasons, both personal and environmental. Although there are plenty of strategies gardeners and homeowners can use to save water with ornamentals, such as planting native and xeric plants, it’s a little tougher with vegetable gardening.
Tomatoes, for example, need consistent watering! But growing tomatoes organically can conserve water. Here are five ways how:
Organic soil retains water better. Anyone can improve their soil’s water retention by up to 5 percent by adding organic matter. It also helps to avoid use of chemicals and pesticides. Using pesticides and chemical fertilizers in gardens can throw off the natural balance of the soil, making it less able to retain moisture around plant roots and making fewer nutrients available for plants. On the contrary, planting cover crops in the fall and use of compost or other organic matter help restore valuable soil nutrients. Organic matter also helps soil structure for water infiltration and retention. Healthy soil can respond better to drought conditions.
Organic growing protects water supplies. By avoiding chemical pesticides and fertilizers, gardeners also protect the water supply. Pesticide chemicals can remain in the soil for years; some are more toxic than others and break down in the soil more slowly. The chemicals from these products can run off into bodies of water, such as rivers. And eventually, they can seep into groundwater. That might seem a distant concern to some urban gardeners, but those of us using wells live right above available water. The more chemicals that run into water supplies, the less safe drinking water is available.
Use of mulch reduces evaporation. A layer of appropriate mulch above the ground around a plant helps reduce ground-to-air evaporation, making the soil take longer to dry out. The mulch also helps cools plant roots. Using organic mulches such as bark, nut shells, compost and others adds organic matter to the soil slowly over time for an added bonus.
Organic methods can minimize erosion. Traditional gardening and farming uses rototilling and deep plowing to turn the soil before each growing season. Plowing deeply and turning the soil over can disrupt soil microorganisms, harm soil health, and place looser soils on top, where they’re subject to erosion from water and wind (think Dust Bowl). No-till methods help control erosion and build soil structure. The soils, in turn, better retain water. This can be a problem if the soil drains poorly, but a definite help in low-water regions. Not tilling involves building up beds with organic matter, much like nature does as plants drop leaves that decompose. If you want to work organic matter in, it’s best to grab a shovel. A broadfork is the best tool for breaking up compacted soil.
Growing organically creates healthier plants. Healthy soil is the foundation needed to grow healthy food. When soil has good nutrients and structure, it supports root growth and uptake of nutrients, improving plant health. Plants that are not healthy are more vulnerable to insect and disease damage. The plant might not use water as it should when it’s stressed, and the gardener certainly guesses that if a plant looks bad, it needs water. So, keeping plants healthy saves the extra water the plant needs or gardener applies in times of stress. And healthy plants keep on going, so you don’t waste water on establishing a plant that later dies from poor conditions.
Native plants should be the mantra of every xeric gardener. Let’s first review what makes a plant native and why native plants are so beneficial.
What is a Native Plant?
A native plant grows naturally in a particular region or location. To be termed “native,” a plant must have had no human intervention when it first set down roots. That doesn’t mean you can’t plant natives, just that the original plants were, well, original to a region and not introduced. The benefits of choosing native plants are many, including:
Water savings. Plants native to a region and climate should need less water from gardeners in prairies and mountains, relying mostly on Mother Nature alone. Even in areas where drought is less of a concern, native plants should get by on typical rainfall with little supplemental watering after the first year or so.
Convenience. Less watering means less time, in addition to the natural and financial resource savings! Native plants should be easier to maintain as well.
Helping pollinators. As natural areas such as forests and prairies disappear, usually because of development, bees and butterflies have fewer plants they can rely on for the energy they need. Planting natives helps them find nearby food sources. Attracting pollinators always is a good thing – they help tomatoes and other vegetable plants fruit, and your garden improves their habitat. Regardless of the many “right” reasons, you and your family can enjoy watching bees, butterflies and birds as the pollinators enjoy the buffet.
Better chance for success. Native plants are adaptable, so if you plant the right plant in the right location and follow care instructions, watering a little more than recommended in the first season or so, your job is easy after that.
Native Plant Resources
Now that I’ve convinced you to go native, where do you find native and pollinator plants for your region? Here are six resources:
Your local nursery, as in locally owned. You’ll find more knowledgeable staff on average here than at big box stores (such as Walmart or Home Depot). Local nurseries tend to grow and sell plants native to your area, and usually can answer your questions, even with some specifics on microclimates in your region. Catalogs that sell to your region or zone also can be helpful, especially in identifying pollinators (typically with an icon of a bee, butterfly or hummingbird).
Apps, especially from local sources. There are some great plant apps or mobile-friendly sites, including GrowIt! And Plants Map. For example, GrowIt! has a search feature for plants within a set radius of your location. As long as there are other members near you, it can be a big help. Plants Map includes communities, resources and individuals in its collections. A search could bring up your nearby botanical garden or private collections. Local apps from trusted sources such as extension offices are great for spotting natives. I use Southwest Plant Selector app, listed on my Resources page. In the future, watch for Leafsnap, a collective effort to offer visual recognition software to help you identify plants, much like a printed field guide.
USDA Plant Database. The Department of Agriculture has a database from which visitors can search plants by scientific or common name, and filter by state. It also has a state plants checklist (that looks like HTML code, unfortunately). This site is not sexy, but the best part about it is that once you find a plant you’re considering, a map comes up that indicates whether a plant is native to your state (green fill). It includes a lot of scientific information, but most plants have several photos to help verify identification and if you click on “legal status,” you can learn whether the plant is considered endangered or classified as a noxious weed in your state.
Native plant societies. The North American Native Plant Society has lots of information on natives, including a database searchable by type of habitat and this list of state plant societies. Those state groups with websites or newsletters can be excellent sources, and most offer inexpensive membership.
Friends, family and neighbors. If you see a plant you like, one full or butterflies, or remember a favorite from childhood, ask around. Even if a plant is not native, but seems to do well in your neighborhood, you can ask the homeowner or a local landscape designer about ease of care and hardiness.
Native Seed Resources
Growing natives and pollinator plants from seeds is less expensive, but can require a little more time and water initially. Here are a few sources for information on gathering or buying native seeds:
Xerces Society- In addition to pollinator plant lists for the United States (that unfortunately appear to exclude New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and some other Western states), the society has a seed mix calculator to help with restoration efforts of prairies, etc., with native pollinator plants.
The North American Native Plant Society also has a seed exchange for members and information on collecting seeds from native plants.
Native Seeds/SEARCH is the top source for Southwestern native seeds. Their vault contains native crop seeds for low desert and high desert regions, along with wildflower seeds. It’s a wonderful combination of conservation and native seed resources.
Check out the Resources page for more information on buying seeds and plants native to your region.
Often on this site, I talk about how to keep gardening simple, fun and useful. And although xeriscaping can be tricky and drought even tougher to endure when starting out as a gardener, there are plenty of strategies to help gardeners succeed, or at least enjoy the process.
To help Southwest gardeners — and all people jumping into gardening — I try to follow a few important rules:
Here’s how I look at it: We all started out new to this hobby at some point, whether it was in childhood or following an education in horticulture. Yet we’ve had nursery people talk down to us when we ask a question, and I cringe every time I see a tweet or pin titled “You’re Doing _____ Wrong,” or “5 Mistakes to Avoid With ____.”
I’ve also seen fellow master gardeners try so hard to show what they’ve learned that they are condescending when talking to new gardeners on social media or in person. That’s really the opposite of the concept; master gardeners are trained to help.
To that end, I recently wrote an article for Green Profit Magazine about how folks in the industry can talk to the level of all gardeners and potential gardeners. The article includes some helpful sources who recognize that helping gardeners succeed beats telling them what they’re doing wrong.
If someone kindly explains something to me that I already know, it wastes a little bit of my time, but I appreciate the effort. But when someone makes me feel stupid because of a question or error, I simply stop frequenting their business or acquaintance.
So, if you already garden and want to recruit a neighbor, daughter or friend into the hobby or you communicate with gardeners, help people with kindness, example, simplicity and patience.
It’s warming up outside (finally!) and lots of Southwest homeowners will be planning changes or additions to their xeric and edible gardens.
1. Small tomatoes – cocktail, cherry, grape Pros: Tomatoes are by far the best crop to grow at home to enjoy the flavor and quality of the fruit. Small tomatoes ripen in most climates, and if you plant in succession (such as one plant every two weeks), you can enjoy them all summer in moderate climates. Colorful cherry tomato varieties look terrific roasted or in salads. And these smaller tomato varieties can grow right on your patio in a container (minimum about 12 inches). Cons: Heirloom tomatoes are pretty and often large, plus great for slicing to add to sandwiches and green chile cheeseburgers. But unless you live in a warmer zone (Las Cruces, Deming and lower elevations of Arizona), or have a greenhouse, it can be tough to grow large heirloom tomatoes. At zone 6B, we have a relatively short growing period.
Care: Tomatoes need sun and heat; larger fruit seldom ripens completely if temperatures drop or clouds roll in at the end of the summer. It’s possible to keep tomato plants going, and we probably could have grown larger varieties last year. Look for short-season varieties. Water tomatoes consistently for best results, using a timed drip system when possible and a routine for hand watering containers.
2. Cucumbers Pros: When you grow your own cucumbers, they’re fresher, tastier and lack the wax coating applied to commercial cucumbers. They’re easy to grow and typically produce for months each summer. You can find burpless, slicing and pickling varieties. Cucumber flowers are bright and pretty, so the plant can look great mixed in with ornamentals. Cons: A cucumber plant needs lots of space, and should have a trellis or similar structure for climbing. You can grow one in a container, as long as you have something for the plant to climb on or around or choose a bush variety (they take 2 to 3 feet of space vs. 6 feet for vine plants).
Care: Plant cucumber seeds directly in the ground based on seed packet instructions for your zone. Cucumbers don’t transplant well and don’t germinate well until the ground and air are warm enough. Learn when to harvest for best flavor and smaller seeds, usually before the fruit gets larger than its stated size. Give them full sun and well-drained soil.
3. Green beans Pros: Green beans come in bush or pole (climbing) varieties, along with filet shape, are super easy to grow and are pretty plants. Snap beans (with an edible pod), shelling beans, and dry beans are all choices for home gardeners. You can find purple beans and other colors to liven up the kitchen garden and your dinner plate. Green beans grow well in a range of zones. Cons: Beans can produce! Although you can freeze or can extras, you can become overwhelmed by the harvest. Plant beans several weeks apart to extend the season and grow only what you need. And be sure to provide stakes, tee pees or fencing for pole beans.
Care: Sow seeds directly in the ground in full sun when possible and after the soil warms. Beans need well-drained soil and regular moisture. There is no need to soak bean seeds before planting; the plants germinate quickly and soaking can damage bean seeds. Beans do best when temperatures are not too high (above 90 degrees F) or too cool.
4. Snap peas Pros: Snap peas are my new favorite vegetable to eat right off the vine. Sugar snaps are delicious raw and a great addition to salads, vegetable trays or stir fry. You can start pea plants earlier than green beans, as soon as soil temperatures warm to about 45 degrees F. The peas grow best in cool weather, which makes them perfect for early spring and late summer planting. The flowers are pretty and delicate, and the leaves are more attractive than larger green bean foliage. Cons: Sugar snaps have annoying strings along the entire pod, but you can find stringless varieties. The plants need more water than some vegetables.
Care: If using a drip system for your kitchen garden, add a few extra emitters or more pressure for your peas. Vining varieties do best if supported by a trellis or other structure. Mulching around the base of the plants helps keep them cool and moist.
5. Carrots Pros: Every child (and adult) should get to pull and taste a fresh carrot to get hooked on vegetables. Carrots do well in cool weather, and are one of the first crops you can plant in spring (about 3 weeks before your last frost). Often, you can keep them going well into fall or winter with the help of a row cover fabric or similar method to warm the ground slightly. Carrots come in a rainbow of colors or several sizes and shapes of typical orange roots. Cons: Carrots require thinning to grow best, and it’s hard to pull up any of your many seedlings. But thinning helps – this is a root crop and you want the root to have plenty of room beneath the soil. If your soil is too compacted, the carrots won’t grow well.
Care: Keep seeds evenly moist and be sure to thin when leaves reach a couple of inches high. Until ready to harvest, keep the crowns covered with soil. Harvest carrots when the top of the root, or crown, is under an inch in diameter, depending on the variety.
I tend to hibernate in winter, and emerge only on days that are sunny (common), not windy (rare) and warmer than normal for this time of year (sporadic). I get why animals do the same, and I love the thought that I’m helping them get through winter in some small way.
Here are a few ideas for helping area birds and wildlife with your landscape:
Deer have their own diet, thank you
Animal lovers feel empathy for wildlife when severe weather hits, leading to cold and scarcity of plants the animals browse. Unfortunately, tourists in mountain communities appear to be more interested in taking selfies with wildlife. We live near a resort town, where small herds of deer and elk (and bears) live in or enter populated areas. I’ve seen tourists pull over and feed deer. I don’t even want to know what they are feeding the animals. It’s also likely that some people in wildlife areas put out feeders to attract deer. But I don’t agree with that for several reasons.
Ups and downs of feeders
First, deer take time to adjust to new foods, many of which are not easily digested by wild animals. The kitchen scraps or Doritos from a car window can do more harm than good. Even if a homeowner sets out a feeder with pellets designed for the deer diet, doing so changes browsing and movement patterns and makes it easier for predators to find and prey on herds. The deer also can depend on humans or compete more for concentrated food sources, which means the weak ones lose out at a feeder. In open areas with natural food sources, the fawns and young bucks can find nearby sources when kicked off the favored spots.
We live in a residential area with large lots and our deer are not as used to people as those a few miles up the road. I like it that way, and instead of feeding them, we leave our grass longer in fall to help with their browsing (and we believe it helps improve native grass coverage the next spring). We also do our best not to bother the herd by walking slowly and away from them if possible when sharing space outdoors. That also means teaching our dogs to ignore them.
I have wondered and worried why deer don’t come around when we have a blanket of snow on the ground, but I thought it might be too difficult to get to the food below. That is true, and deer know to fatten up and live off reserves, staying close to their trees up higher for shelter. Coming down to graze through a layer or snow would take more energy than the payoff. Other wildlife shelter ideas are piles of dead tree limbs away from the house and in protected areas, along with fencing that is easy for deer and elk to enter.
Feeding birds in winter
We do supplement birds’ diets in winter, and although I will continue doing so, I see some evidence of the same problems that can occur at deer feeders. First, hawks and kestrels come right into the garden, hunting near the feeders. They would help me and themselves more by finding some yummy mice to eat instead. Second, we see some feeder competition at times, but we have several different feeders/types of food, and for the most part, the birds all play well together. Placing feeders at different spots and filling them with different energy sources can support more types of birds, especially during migration.
Natural food and shelter
Of course, natural food sources are great for birds too. But by late winter, the stores of berries, nuts, and seeds on flowers, trees and bushes has dwindled. As I wrote about this time last year, birds need extra food in winter to gather energy to fight cold. And many, such as juncos, must replenish that energy daily in cold weather.
Plants also provide shelter, and placing both shelter and food sources at various heights and spots in your garden offers some protection. Here are some bird-friendly plants:
Flowers for seeds, including sunflowers, Echinacea (coneflower), coreopsis, salvias, and many native grasses and annuals. Milkweed (Asclepias) not only helps Monarch butterflies, but attracts plenty of insects that birds eat.
Fruiting vines and shrubs such as Virginia creeper (Pathenocissus quinqefolia), wild grapes, elderberry (Sambucus) and serviceberry (Amalanchier utahensis Koehne, or Utah serviceberry),
Native trees for fruits, nuts and shelter. Birds need a high place to land when escaping or looking for predators. Evergreens such as arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis) and all spruces offer dense shelter from the elements for landing or nesting.
These plants also can provide winter interest for homeowners’ gardens and can feed birds through fall and early winter in some cases.
I’ll admit that part of my willingness to also spend the money on bird seed is selfish. It’s nice to watch the bird show from our window when the plants are dormant and I’m stuck inside. But I also like to think that the shelter and food our place provides help ease the burden for these and other creatures.