Keeping Critters Out of the Garden

You water and nurture a delicious tomato from seed and delight each day in seeing it grow and fruit. And then a critter eats the branches, roots or leaves. It’s a little tougher to love wildlife when they destroy your plants and food.

deer grazing near garden
Deer grazed near our vegetable garden while we filled our troughs with dirt. Notice the fence post on the right.

Some critters are easy to manage, but others not so much. Here, we have gophers, deer, gophers, elk, gophers, squirrels, gophers, rabbits, gophers, skunks and more gophers. I’ve listed a few tips for managing or controlling the ones that visit our gardens most often, which are deer — and you guessed it, gophers.

Directing Deer

The deer around our place have been especially active this year, and I believe one reason is that we did not mow our grass late in the season. A warm February produced new grass to graze as they ate up the old. Having them here more often is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, we get to enjoy them more often, but they have more opportunities to try out plants we’d prefer they didn’t eat.

xeric garden deer
Even after deer spent a winter munching regularly in our xeric garden, most plants did fine!

We have to fence many young trees and our vegetable garden to keep deer from destroying plants. Other tactics include trimming branches high enough to keep deer from reaching them while standing on their hind legs. We missed some low branches on our pear, and I noticed telltale signs the other day that deer had munched on the ends of several. Last summer, however, they ignored some unfenced tomatoes until well into fall.

We also have many deer-resistant plants in our ornamental garden, which avoids the expense and waste associated with choosing plants they love. Typically, only fawns graze plants such as rosemary, lavender, sage and butterfly bush. They’ve chewed a new kniphofia (red hot poker) to the ground and almost killed an oriental poppy. Bucks can also damage young trees by rubbing their antlers on the trunks, and small plants can be broken when deer step on them.

buck kitchen window
This buck spotted us through our kitchen window while he was grazing in our front yard.

We won’t exclude deer. After years, I still thrill at the sight of them, and love watching the herd grow as part of recovery following a past forest fire. So, here are a few strategies we use for protecting plants from deer:

  • Fence around vulnerable, favorite or valuable plants. And remember that a deer can go under a fence to munch just as easily as they it goes over one. Fencing can be attractive, as long as it’s also functional.
  • I have heard that fencing should be eight feet or higher, but we’ve done fine (so far) with 6-foot fencing (on 8-foot posts to allow at least a foot to 18 inches underground).
deer fence vegetable garden
The fence around our first vegetable garden area was inexpensive to build and has kept out deer.
  • Protect small individual plants with 5-gallon buckets (after sawing out the bottom). If it’s a plant favored by deer, we also strap chicken wire across the top of the bucket.
  • Although I don’t necessarily believe that repellants work, we have used Irish Spring soap in pantyhose to hang near plants with some success.
  • Don’t assume deer avoid prickly and thorny plants. They love rose bushes, though they tend to not eat much at once.
deer fencing
This fencing from old fence posts was a little high on the bottom, but only a fawn got to our sand cherries.

Gophers – the Bane of Our Existence

I do want to eradicate gophers, but we’re losing. The underground varmints can chew and claw their way through rocks, and probably titanium. We can’t even count the destruction they’ve caused, but we know they killed a dwarf apple tree, a lavender plant, and several other ornamentals. My favorite (or least favorite) example is the day we noticed that our new ornamental grass looked shorter. We blamed the deer for chewing on it, but when we got close, we noticed it had been shortened from the roots up. The stalks simply fell into the hole when we touched them.

gopher damage
Example of gopher damage near our peach tree. The tunnels collapse when deer, elk or people step on them, also making the ground a little unsteady for ankles.

The only control method that works for us is trapping. It’s a time-consuming business, but if we didn’t try to manage the numbers, the gophers would continue to multiply and take over the property. In fact, they nearly have. In one year, Tim trapped more than 80 gophers, and we still have lots of activity around the four acres. Our other method is exclusion, and the only way to exclude them is to fence underground. If you’re not sure whether you have pocket gophers, this publication from the University of California Davis has excellent photos of their mounds.

metal chicken scratch
Metal wire, or chicken scratch, from the home improvement store stucco section. We buried it about 22 to 24 inches deep and left some above ground to discourage bunnies and squirrels.

Between the deer and gophers, we’ve had to fence nearly two feet underground and six feet over. We dug a trench and purchased metal stucco wire to place into it, bending it slightly at the bottom. We also have some metal roofing material we’ll place along the side of our garden that borders our neighbor’s lawn. Here are a few more tips on gopher control:

  • An underground gopher barrier must be solid metal or metal wire with holes smaller than 3/4 inch. We used chicken scratch.
  • There are poisons for gophers, but we avoid them, because dogs and other animals might eat the pellets. Trapping seems cruel, but I think poisoning would be worse, frankly. The UC Davis site also discusses how to trap. Tim has often caught a gopher with only one trap per tunnel.
  • Gophers seem to prefer tender, young plant roots. I also am convinced that they gravitate to areas we’ve recently watered, but that’s just observation.
  • Use containers or raised beds. We use metal troughs and drill about half-inch holes, just large enough to support drainage. Surround raised beds with metal screen or solid metal, or dig down and cover the bottom of the bed with metal. Just remember that the  gopher barrier also can be a barrier to plant roots. Placing containers close to your home usually prevents deer damage.
  • Be aware of natural gopher predators. Many “safe” snakes, along with owls, cats and dogs prey on gophers. But you can’t count on it. A bull snake in our garden went after baby rabbits as well, and owls and cats don’t focus their hunting.
  • Cleaning up heavily weeded or covered areas can help control gophers. For example, we often discover mounds under low trees and bushes or in our irrigation ditch.